it could thus jeopardize our own ability to satisfy our REIT qualification requirements. We do not expect that the foregoing REIT asset tests would be violated if the subsidiary were treated as a
TRS pursuant to a valid TRS election. Accordingly, we have made and expect to make TRS elections, as described below, on a protective basis with respect to our subsidiary REITs and may implement other protective arrangements intended to avoid a
cascading REIT failure if any of our intended subsidiary REITs were not to qualify for taxation as a REIT, but there can be no assurance that such protective elections and other arrangements will be effective to avoid the resulting adverse
consequences to us.
Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. We are permitted to own any or all of the securities of a TRS, provided
that no more than 25% (20% beginning with our 2018 taxable year) of the total value of our assets, at the close of each quarter, is comprised of our investments in the stock or other securities of our TRSs. Very generally, a TRS is a subsidiary
corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock and that has made a joint election with its parent REIT to be treated as a TRS. We have made significant loans to our TRSs secured by towers, tower sites, or other
interests in real property and have received a private letter ruling from the IRS that such loans will not be treated as a security for purposes of this TRS ownership limitation. Our ownership of stock and other securities in TRSs is exempt from the
5% asset test, the 10% vote test and the 10% value test described below. In addition, any corporation (other than a REIT) in which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the outstanding securities of such
corporation will automatically be treated as a TRS. Subject to the discussion below, we believe that we and each of our TRSs have complied with, and will continue to comply with, on a continuous basis, the requirements for TRS status at all times
during which the subsidiarys TRS election is reported as being in effect, and we believe that the same will be true for any TRS that we later form or acquire.
As described below, TRSs can perform services for our tenants without disqualifying the rents we receive from those tenants under the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test described below.
Moreover, because our TRSs are taxed as C corporations that are separate from us, their assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit generally are not imputed to us for purposes of the REIT qualification requirements described in
this summary. Therefore, our TRSs may generally undertake third-party management and development activities and activities not related to real estate.
Restrictions and sanctions, such as deduction limitations and excise taxes, are imposed on TRSs and their parent REITs to ensure that the TRSs will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income
taxation. For example, if in comparison to an arms length transaction, a third-party tenant has overpaid rent or related service charges to the REIT in exchange for underpaying the TRS for services rendered, and if the REIT has not adequately
compensated the TRS for services provided to or on behalf of the third-party tenant, then the REIT may be subject to an excise tax equal to 100% of the undercompensation to the TRS. There can be no assurance that arrangements involving our TRSs will
not result in the imposition of one or more deduction limitations or excise taxes, but we do not believe that we or our TRSs are or will be subject to these impositions.
Our Assets as Real Estate Assets. Treasury regulations define real property for purposes of Section 856 of the Code to mean land or improvements thereon, such as buildings or other
inherently permanent structures thereon, including items which are structural components of such buildings or structures. In addition, the term is defined recursively so that real property includes interests in real property. The term real
property includes both property located within and outside of the United States. Local law definitions are not controlling as to what constitutes real property. We have received a private letter ruling from the IRS that, for
purposes of Section 856 of the Code, our towers and the sites on which they are located (including any fencing, shelters and permanently installed backup generators) are interests in real property. This ruling is consistent with prior
administrative and judicial precedent, as well as proposed Treasury regulations defining real property. Accordingly, we believe that all or substantially all of our towers and the sites on which they are located (including any fencing, shelters and
permanently installed backup generators) are properly treated as real property for purposes of Section 856 of the Code.