$38 million of stock-based compensation) of costs associated with internal-use software and website development. Amortization of previously capitalized amounts was $327 million, $236 million, and
$184 million for 2012, 2011, and 2010. A majority of our technology costs are incurred in the U.S., most of which are allocated to our North America segment. Infrastructure, other technology, and operating costs incurred to support AWS are included
in technology and content.
General and Administrative
The increase in general and administrative costs in absolute dollars in 2012, 2011, and 2010 compared to the comparable prior year periods
is primarily due to increases in payroll and related expenses and professional service fees.
Stock-based compensation was $833 million, $557 million, and $424 million during 2012, 2011, and 2010. The increase in
2012, 2011, and 2010 compared to the comparable prior year periods is primarily due to an increase in total stock-based compensation value granted to our employees and to a decrease in our estimated forfeiture rate.
Other Operating Expense (Income), Net
Other operating expense (income), net was $159 million, $154 million, and $106 million during 2012, 2011, and 2010. In 2012, 2011, and 2010, the amounts primarily related to amortization of intangible
Income from Operations
For the reasons discussed above, income from operations decreased 22% in 2012, decreased 39% in 2011, and increased 25% in 2010.
Interest Income and Expense
Our interest income was $40 million,
$61 million, and $51 million during 2012, 2011, and 2010. We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market funds. Our interest income corresponds with the average
balance of invested funds and the prevailing rates we are earning on them, which vary depending on the geographies and currencies in which they are invested.
The primary component of our interest expense is related to our long-term debt and capital and financing lease arrangements. Interest expense was $92 million, $65 million, and $39 million in 2012, 2011,
Our long-term debt was $3.1 billion and $255 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011. Our other long-term
liabilities were $2.3 billion and $2.4 billion at December 31, 2012 and 2011. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 6Long-Term Debt and Note 7Other Long-Term Liabilities
for additional information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net was $(80) million, $76 million, and $79 million during 2012, 2011, and 2010. The primary component of other
income (expense), net, is related to foreign-currency gains (losses) on intercompany balances.