We generally invest our excess cash in investment grade short-to intermediate-term fixed income securities and AAA-rated money market funds. Such investments are included in Cash and cash
equivalents, or Marketable securities on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, classified as available for sale, and reported at fair value with unrealized gains and losses included in Accumulated other comprehensive
Equity investments, including our 29% investment in LivingSocial, are accounted for using the equity method of
accounting if the investment gives us the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over an investee. The total of our investments in equity-method investees, including identifiable intangible assets, deferred tax liabilities, and
goodwill, is included within Other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. Our share of the earnings or losses as reported by equity method investees, amortization of the related intangible assets, and related gains or losses, if any,
are classified as Equity-method investment activity, net of tax on our consolidated statements of operations. Our share of the net income or loss of our equity method investees includes operating and non-operating gains and charges,
which can have a significant impact on our reported equity-method investment activity and the carrying value of those investments. We regularly evaluate these investments, which are not carried at fair value, for other-than-temporary impairment. We
also consider whether our equity method investments generate sufficient cash flows from their operating or financing activities to meet their obligations and repay their liabilities when they come due.
We record purchases, including incremental purchases, of shares in equity-method investees at cost. Reductions in our ownership
percentage of an investee, including through dilution, are generally valued at fair value, with the difference between fair value and our recorded cost reflected as a gain or loss in our equity-method investment activity. In the event we no longer
have the ability to exercise significant influence over an equity-method investee, we would discontinue accounting for the investment under the equity method.
Equity investments without readily determinable fair values for which we do not have the ability to exercise significant influence are accounted for using the cost method of accounting and classified as
Other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. Under the cost method, investments are carried at cost and are adjusted only for other-than-temporary declines in fair value, certain distributions, and additional investments.
Equity investments that have readily determinable fair values are classified as available for sale and are included in Marketable
securities in our consolidated balance sheet and are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, included in Accumulated other comprehensive loss.
We periodically evaluate whether declines in fair values of our investments below their book value are other-than-temporary. This
evaluation consists of several qualitative and quantitative factors regarding the severity and duration of the unrealized loss as well as our ability and intent to hold the investment until a forecasted recovery occurs. Additionally, we assess
whether we have plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not we will be required to sell any investment before recovery of its amortized cost basis. Factors considered include quoted market prices; recent financial results and operating
trends; implied values from any recent transactions or offers of investee securities; credit quality of debt instrument issuers; other publicly available information that may affect the value of our investments; duration and severity of the decline
in value; and our strategy and intentions for holding the investment.
Long-lived assets, other than goodwill, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying
amount of the assets might not be recoverable. Conditions that would necessitate an impairment assessment include a significant decline in the observable market value of an asset, a significant change in the extent or manner in which an asset is
used, or any other significant adverse change that would indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable.