income (expense), net – Other income and expenses, net, in 2018 and 2017 consist primarily of net foreign currency transaction
gains and losses recognized by Cell Cure and ESI and interest expense and interest income. Foreign currency transaction gains
and losses for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 are principally related to the remeasurement of the US dollar denominated
notes payable by Cell Cure to BioTime and other Cell Cure shareholders.
2017, we purchased all of the outstanding Cell Cure convertible promissory notes held by other Cell Cure shareholders as discussed
in Note 10 in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Report. Accordingly, net interest expense decreased
substantially for the three months ended March 31, 2018 as compared to the three months ended March 31, 2017, as a significant
portion of our consolidated interest expense was incurred from Cell Cure convertible promissory notes held by other Cell Cure
shareholders prior to our purchase.
deconsolidation of Asterias and OncoCyte financial statements from BioTime were not taxable transactions and did not create a
current income tax payment obligation. The market values of the Asterias and OncoCyte shares we hold create a deferred tax liability
to us based on the closing market prices of the shares, less our tax basis in the shares. The deferred tax liability generated
by the Asterias and OncoCyte shares that we hold is a source of taxable income to us that
will more likely than not result in the realization of our deferred tax assets to the extent of those deferred tax liabilities.
Because the deferred tax liabilities are determined based on the closing prices of those shares and, due to the inherent
unpredictability of future prices of those shares, we cannot reliably estimate or project those deferred tax liabilities on an
annual basis. Therefore, the deferred tax liabilities pertaining to Asterias and OncoCyte shares, measured as of the period end
being reported, and the related impacts to the valuation allowance changes and deferred tax assets, are recorded in the interim
period in which they occur.
March 23, 2018, Ascendance was acquired by a third party in a merger though which AgeX received approximately $3.2 million in
cash for its shares of Ascendance common stock. For financial reporting purposes, AgeX recognized a $3.2 million gain as a sale
of its equity method investment in Ascendance. The
sale was a taxable transaction to AgeX generating a taxable gain of approximately $2.2 million. We have sufficient current year
losses from operations to offset the entire gain resulting in no income taxes due.
valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized.
For federal and state income tax purposes, as a result of the deconsolidation of Asterias and OncoCyte and the deferred tax liabilities
generated from the market values of Asterias and OncoCyte shares from the respective deconsolidation dates, including the changes
to those deferred tax liabilities due to changes in the Asterias and OncoCyte stock prices, our deferred tax assets exceeded deferred
tax liabilities as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017. We established a full valuation allowance as of March 31, 2018 and
December 31, 2017 due to the uncertainty of realizing future tax benefits from our net operating loss carryforwards and other
deferred tax assets. Accordingly, we did not record any provision or benefit for income taxes for the three months ended March
of March 31, 2017, for federal income tax purposes, our deferred tax liabilities exceeded our deferred tax assets by $3.9 million
and, accordingly, we released the entire valuation allowance and recognized a federal deferred income tax expense of $3.9 million
during the three months ended March 31, 2017.
state income tax purposes, we established a full valuation allowance on our state deferred tax assets for all periods presented
and, accordingly, no state tax provision or benefit was recorded for any period presented.
expect that deferred income tax expense or benefit we record each reporting period, if any, will vary depending on the change
in the closing stock prices of Asterias and OncoCyte shares from period to period and the related changes in those deferred tax
liabilities and our deferred tax assets and other credits, including changes in the valuation allowance, for each period.