are now accounted for as they occur instead of based on the number of awards that were expected to vest. Based on the nature and
timing of OncoCyte’s grants, straight line expense attribution of stock based compensation for the entire award and the
relatively low forfeiture rate on OncoCyte’s experience, the impact of adoption of ASU 2016-09 pertaining to forfeitures
was not significant to OncoCyte’s financial statements.
estimates the fair value of employee stock-based payment awards on the grant-date and recognizes the resulting fair value over
the requisite service period. OncoCyte uses the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model for estimating the fair value of options
granted under OncoCyte’s Stock Option Plan. The fair value of each restricted stock grant, if any, is determined based on
the value of the common stock granted or sold. OncoCyte has elected to treat stock-based payment awards with graded vesting schedules
and time-based service conditions as a single award and recognizes stock-based compensation on a straight-line basis over the
requisite service period.
expense for non-employee stock-based awards is recognized in accordance with ASC 718 and FASB ASC 505-50, Equity-Based Payments
to Non-Employees. Stock option awards issued to non-employees, principally consultants and employees of BioTime or employees
of BioTime subsidiaries who perform services for OncoCyte, are accounted for at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing
model. Management believes that the fair value of the stock options can more reliably be measured than the fair value of services
received. OncoCyte records compensation expense based on the then-current fair values of the stock options at each financial reporting
date. Compensation expense recorded during the service period is adjusted in subsequent periods for changes in the fair value
of the stock options until the earlier of the date at which the non-employee’s performance is complete or a performance
commitment is reached, which is generally when the stock option award vests. Compensation expense for non-employee grants is recorded
on a straight-line basis in the statements of operations.
Black-Scholes option pricing model requires OncoCyte to make certain assumptions including the fair value of the underlying common
stock, the expected option term, the expected volatility, the risk-free interest rate and the dividend yield (see Note 7).
to December 31, 2015, the Board of Directors determined the fair value of the common stock at the time of the grant of options
by considering a number of objective and subjective factors including contemporaneous sales of common stock to investors, valuation
of comparable companies, operating and financial performance and general and industry-specific economic outlook, among other factors
in accordance with applicable elements of the practice aid issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants titled
Valuation of Privately Held Company Equity Securities Issued As Compensation. OncoCyte common stock began to trade publicly
on the NYSE American on December 31, 2015, and since that date the fair value of OncoCyte common stock underlying stock options
has been determined with reference to closing prices reported on the NYSE American.
expected term of employee stock options represents the weighted-average period that the stock options are expected to remain outstanding.
OncoCyte estimates the expected term of options granted based upon the “simplified method” provided under Staff
Accounting Bulletin, Topic 14, or SAB Topic 14, including, in part, based on its own experience.
OncoCyte’s common stock had no public trading history prior to December 31, 2015, for the year ended December 31, 2015,
OncoCyte estimated the expected volatility of the awards from the historical volatility of selected public companies within the
biotechnology industry with comparable characteristics to OncoCyte, including similarity in size, lines of business, market capitalization,
revenue and financial leverage. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, OncoCyte estimated the expected volatility using
its own stock price volatility to the extent applicable or a combination of its stock price volatility and the stock price volatility
of stock of peer companies, for a period equal to the expected term of the options.
risk-free interest rate assumption is based upon observed interest rates on the United States government securities appropriate
for the expected term of OncoCyte’s stock options.
dividend yield assumption is based on OncoCyte’s history and expectation of dividend payouts. OncoCyte has never declared
or paid any cash dividends on its common stock, and OncoCyte does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable