Cash and cash equivalents – Asterias considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, Asterias had $13.7 million and $10.0 million in money market funds, respectively, considered to be cash equivalents.
Concentrations of credit risk – Financial instruments that potentially subject Asterias to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. Asterias limits the amount of credit exposure of cash balances by maintaining its accounts in high credit quality financial institutions. Cash equivalent deposits with financial institutions may occasionally exceed the limits of insurance on bank deposits; however, Asterias has not experienced any losses on such accounts.
Comprehensive income/loss – ASC 220, Comprehensive Income, requires that an entity’s change in equity or net assets during a period from transactions and other events from non-owner sources be reported. Asterias reports unrealized gains and losses on its available-for-sale securities as other comprehensive income/(loss).
Available-for-sale securities, at fair value – Marketable equity and debt securities not classified as held-to-maturity are classified as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive income or loss. Realized gains and losses, and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary related to equity securities, are included in other income/(expense), net.
Asterias accounts for the BioTime and OncoCyte shares it holds as available-for-sale equity securities in accordance with ASC 320-10-25, Investments-Debt and Equity Securities, as the shares have a readily determinable fair value quoted on the NYSE MKT and are held principally for future working capital purposes, as necessary. These shares are measured at fair value and reported as current assets on the balance sheet based on the closing trading price of the security as of the date being presented (see Note 4). Unrealized holding gains and losses are excluded from the statements of operations and reported in equity as part of other comprehensive income or loss until realized.
Realized gains and losses on the sale of BioTime shares prior to May 13, 2016, were reclassified out of other comprehensive income or loss and included in equity, as an increase or decrease in additional paid-in capital consistent with, and pursuant to, ASC 805-50, Transactions Between Entities Under Common Control. Beginning on May 13, 2016, due to the deconsolidation of Asterias financial statements from BioTime and loss of control experienced by BioTime on Asterias, as discussed in Note 1, realized gains and losses, and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary related to equity securities, are included in other income/(expense), net. For OncoCyte shares that Asterias holds, realized gains and losses, and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary related to equity securities, are included in other income/(expense), net.
Asterias reviews various factors in determining whether it should recognize an other-than-temporary impairment charge for its available-for-sale securities, including its intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient for any anticipated recovery in market value, and the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than its cost basis. Based on consideration of these factors, as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, no other-than-temporary impairment loss was recognized.
Property, plant and equipment – Property, plant and equipment includes equipment, fixtures and leasehold improvements stated at cost. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over a period of their estimated useful lives ranging from 36 to 120 months. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the shorter of the useful life or the lease term.
Long-lived intangible assets – Long-lived intangible assets, consisting primarily of acquired patents, patent applications, and licenses to use certain patents are stated at acquired cost, less accumulated amortization. Amortization expense is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally over 10 years.
Impairment of long-lived assets – Long-lived assets, including long-lived intangible assets, will be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable. If an impairment indicator is present, Asterias evaluates recoverability by a comparison of the carrying amount of the assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. If the assets are impaired, the impairment will be recognized and measured by the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the estimated fair value of the assets.