Key Energy Services, Inc. and Subsidiaries
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
and resolve production problems. Maintenance services are generally less complicated than completion and workover related services and require less time to perform.
Our rig fleet is also used in the process of permanently shutting-in oil or natural gas wells that are at the end of their productive lives. These plugging and abandonment services generally require auxiliary equipment in addition to a well servicing rig. The demand for plugging and abandonment services is not significantly impacted by the demand for oil and natural gas because well operators are required by state regulations to plug wells that are no longer productive.
Fluid Management Services
We provide transportation and well-site storage services for various fluids utilized in connection with drilling, completions, workover and maintenance activities. We also provide disposal services for fluids produced subsequent to well completion. These fluids are removed from the well site and transported for disposal in SWD wells owned by us or a third party. In addition, we operate a fleet of hot oilers capable of pumping heated fluids used to clear soluble restrictions in a wellbore. Demand and pricing for these services generally correspond to demand for our well service rigs.
Coiled Tubing Services
Coiled Tubing Services involve the use of a continuous metal pipe spooled onto a large reel which is then deployed into oil and natural gas wells to perform various applications, such as wellbore clean-outs, nitrogen jet lifts, through-tubing fishing, and formation stimulations utilizing acid and chemical treatments. Coiled tubing is also used for a number of horizontal well applications such as milling temporary isolation plugs that separate frac zones, and various other pre- and post- hydraulic fracturing well preparation services.
Fishing and Rental Services
We offer a full line of services and rental equipment designed for use in providing drilling and workover services. Fishing services involve recovering lost or stuck equipment in the wellbore utilizing a broad array of “fishing tools.” Our rental tool inventory consists of drill pipe, tubulars, handling tools (including our patented Hydra-Walk® pipe-handling units and services), pressure-control equipment, pumps, power swivels, reversing units, foam air units. Our rental inventory also included frac stack equipment used to support hydraulic fracturing operations and the associated flowback of frac fluids, proppants, oil and natural gas. We also had provided well testing services. Our frac stack equipment well testing services were sold in the second quarter of 2017.
Demand for our Fishing and Rental Services is closely related to capital spending by oil and natural gas producers, which is generally a function of oil and natural gas prices.
Our International segment includes our former operations in Mexico, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Russia, Bahrain and Oman. In April 2015, we announced our decision to exit markets in which we participate outside of North America. To this end, during the second half of 2015, we ceased operations in Colombia, Ecuador and the Middle East. During the fourth quarter of 2016, we completed the sale of our business in Mexico, and we completed the sale of our Canadian subsidiary and Russian subsidiary in the second and third quarters of 2017, respectively. Our services in these international markets consisted of rig-based services such as the maintenance, workover, and recompletion of existing oil wells, completion of newly-drilled wells, and plugging and abandonment of wells at the end of their useful lives. We also had a technology development and control systems business based in Canada, which was focused on the development of hardware and software related to oilfield service equipment controls, data acquisition and digital information flow.
Our Functional Support segment includes unallocated overhead costs associated with administrative support for our U.S. and International reporting segments.