Key Energy Services, Inc. and Subsidiaries
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax effects of temporary differences between the tax basis of an asset or liability and its reported amount in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on enacted tax laws and rates currently in effect in each of the jurisdictions in which we have operations.
In recording deferred income tax assets, we consider whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred income tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income of the appropriate character during the periods in which those deferred income tax assets would be deductible. We consider the scheduled reversal of deferred income tax liabilities and projected future taxable income for this determination. Due to the history of losses in recent years and the continued challenges in the oil and gas industry, management continues to believe that it is more likely than not that we will not be able to realize our net deferred tax assets, and therefore a valuation allowance remains on the net deferred tax asset balance.
We estimate that as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, we have available $373.1 million, $252.8 million (after attribute reduction) and $243.8 million, respectively, of federal net operating loss carryforwards. However, Internal Revenue Code Sections 382 and 383 impose limitations on a corporation’s ability to utilize tax attributes if the corporation experiences an “ownership change.” The Company experienced an ownership change on December 15, 2016, as the emergence of the Company and certain of its domestic subsidiaries from chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings is considered a change in ownership for purposes of IRC Section 382. As a result, approximately $2.4 million of our net operating losses as of December 31, 2017 are subject to Section 382 limitation and expire in 2019 to 2020. If a subsequent ownership change were to occur as a result of future transactions in the Company’s stock, the Company’s use of remaining U.S. tax attributes may be further limited.
We estimate that as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, we have available $485.6 million, $378.8 million and $258.9 million, respectively, of state net operating loss carryforwards that will expire between 2018 and 2037. We estimate that we have remaining capital loss carryforward of $78.0 million, as $61.2 million expired during 2017. Our remaining capital loss carryforwards will expire in 2021.
We did not provide for U.S. income taxes or withholding taxes on unremitted earnings of our subsidiary in Canada, as these earnings are considered permanently reinvested because the cash flow generated by this business is needed to fund additional equipment and working capital requirements in this jurisdiction. Furthermore, we did not provide for U.S. income taxes on unremitted earnings of our other foreign subsidiaries, because as of December 31, 2017, the Company’s non-Canadian foreign subsidiaries had an accumulated deficit in earnings. The Company does not intend to repatriate the earnings of its foreign subsidiaries.
We file income tax returns in the U.S., including federal and various state filings, and certain foreign jurisdictions. The number of years that are open under the statute of limitations and subject to audit varies depending on the tax jurisdiction. In 2014 the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) concluded their audit of our returns for the tax years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012 with no material changes. In 2015 the IRS concluded their audit of our returns for the tax year ended December 31, 2014 with no changes. Our other significant filings, which are in Mexico, have been examined through tax years 2010.
Under the Plan, a substantial portion of the Company’s pre-petition debt securities, revolving credit facility and other obligations were extinguished. Absent an exception, a debtor recognizes cancellation of indebtedness income (“CODI”) upon discharge of its outstanding indebtedness for an amount of consideration that is less than its adjusted issue price. The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“IRC”), provides that a debtor in a bankruptcy case may exclude CODI from taxable income but must reduce certain of its tax attributes by the amount of any CODI realized as a result of the consummation of a plan of reorganization. The amount of CODI realized by a taxpayer is the adjusted issue price of any indebtedness discharged less the sum of (i) the amount of cash paid, (ii) the issue price of any new indebtedness issued and (iii) the fair market value of any other consideration, including equity, issued. As a result of the market value of equity upon emergence from chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings, the estimated amount of U.S. CODI is approximately $295.8 million, which will reduce the value of Key’s U.S. net operating losses including federal and state that had a value of $518.8 million as of December 15, 2016. The actual reduction in tax attributes does not occur until the first day of the Company’s tax year subsequent to the date of emergence, or December 16, 2016.
Uncertainty in Income Taxes
As of December 31, 2017, December 31, 2016, December 16, 2016, and December 31, 2015 we had $0.1 million, $0.4 million, $0.4 million and $0.6 million, respectively, of unrecognized tax benefits which, if recognized, would impact our effective tax rate. We recognized a net tax benefit $0.3 million in 2017, zero for the period ended December 31, 2016, $0.2 million for the period ended December 15, 2016, and $0.9 million in 2015 for statutes of limitations expiration. We expect our remaining reserve