Key Energy Services, Inc. and Subsidiaries
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
Machinery and Equipment
To estimate the fair value of machinery and equipment, the Company considered the income approach, the cost approach, and the sales comparison (market) approach. The primary approaches that were relied upon to value these assets were the cost approach and the market approach. Although the income approach was not applied to value the machinery and equipment assets individually, the Company did consider the earnings of the enterprise of which these assets are a part. When more than one approach is used to develop a valuation, the various approaches are reconciled to determine a final value conclusion.
The typical starting point or basis of the valuation estimate is replacement cost new (RCN), reproduction cost new (CRN), or a combination of both. Once the RCN and CRN estimates are adjusted for physical and functional conditions, they are then compared to market data and other indications of value, where available, to confirm results obtained by the cost approach.
Where direct RCN estimates were not available or deemed inappropriate, the CRN for machinery and equipment was estimated using the indirect (trending) method, in which percentage changes in applicable price indices are applied to historical costs to convert them into indications of current costs. To estimate the CRN amounts, inflation indices from established external sources were then applied to historical costs to estimate the CRN for each asset.
The market approach measures the value of an asset through an analysis of recent sales or offerings of comparable property, and takes into account physical, functional and economic conditions. Where direct or comparable matches could not be reasonably obtained, the Company utilized the percent of cost technique of the market approach. This technique looks at general sales, sales listings, and auction data for each major asset category. This information is then used in conjunction with each asset’s effective age to develop ratios between the sales price and RCN or CRN of similar asset types. A market-based depreciation curve was developed and applied to asset categories where sufficient sales and auction information existed.
Where market information was not available or a market approach was deemed inappropriate, the Company developed a cost approach. In doing so, an indicated value is derived by deducting physical deterioration from the RCN or CRN of each identifiable asset or group of assets. Physical deterioration is the loss in value or usefulness of a property due to the using up or expiration of its useful life caused by wear and tear, deterioration, exposure to various elements, physical stresses, and similar factors.
Functional and economic obsolescence related to these was also considered. Functional obsolescence due to excess capital costs was eliminated through the direct method of the cost approach to estimate the RCN. Functional obsolescence was applied in the form of a cost-to-cure penalty to certain personal property assets needing significant capital repairs. Economic obsolescence was also applied to stacked and underutilized assets based on the status of the asset. Economic obsolescence was also considered in situations in which the earnings of the applicable business segment in which the assets are employed suggest economic obsolescence. When penalizing assets for economic obsolescence, an additional economic obsolescence penalty was levied , while considering scrap value to be the floor value for an asset.
Land and Building
In establishing the fair value of the real property assets, each of the three traditional approaches to value: the income approach, the market approach and the cost approach was considered. The Company primarily relied on the market and cost approaches.
Land - In valuing the fee simple interest in the land, the Company utilized the sales comparison approach (market approach). The sales comparison approach estimates value based on what other purchasers and sellers in the market have agreed to as the price for comparable properties. This approach is based on the principle of substitution, which states that the limits of prices, rents and rates tend to be set by the prevailing prices, rents and rates of equally desirable substitutes. In conducting the sales comparison approach, data was gathered on comparable properties and adjustments were made for factors including market conditions, size, access/frontage, zoning, location, and conditions of sale. Greatest weight was typically given to the comparable sales in proximity and similar in size to each of the owned sites. In some cases, market participants were contacted to augment the analysis and to confirm the conclusions of value.
Building & Site Improvements - In valuing the fee simple interest in the real property improvements, the Company utilized the direct and indirect methods of the cost approach. For the direct method cost approach analysis, the starting point or basis of the cost approach is the RCN. In order to estimate the RCN of the buildings and site improvements, various factors were considered including building size, year built, number of stories, and the breakout of the space, property history, and maintenance history. We used the data collected to calculate the RCN of the buildings using recognized estimating sources for developing replacement, reproduction, and insurable value costs.
In the application of the indirect method cost approach, the first step is to estimate a CRN for each improvement via the indirect (trending) method of the cost approach. To estimate the CRN amounts, the Company applied published inflation indices