The foregoing is a summary of the substantive provisions of the Plan and related transactions and is not intended to be a complete description of, or a substitute for a full and complete reading of, the Plan and the other documents referred to above.
Our reportable business segments are U.S. Rig Services, Fluid Management Services, Coiled Tubing Services, Fishing and Rental Services and International. We also have a “Functional Support” segment associated with overhead and other costs in support of our reportable segments. Our U.S. Rig Services, Fluid Management Services, Coiled Tubing Services and Fishing and Rental Services operate geographically within the United States. The International reportable segment includes our former operations in Mexico, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Russia, Bahrain and Oman. During the second half of 2015, we ceased operations in Colombia, Ecuador and the Middle East. During the fourth quarter of 2016, we completed the sale of our business in Mexico. We completed the sale of our Canadian subsidiary and Russian subsidiary in the second and third quarter of 2017, respectively. We evaluate the performance of our segments based on gross margin measures. All inter-segment sales pricing is based on current market conditions. See “Note 24. Segment Information” in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional financial information about our reportable business segments and the various geographical areas where we operate.
U.S. Rig Services
Our U.S. Rig Services include the completion of newly drilled wells, workover and recompletion of existing oil and natural gas wells, well maintenance, and the plugging and abandonment of wells at the end of their useful lives. We also provide specialty drilling services to oil and natural gas producers with certain of our larger rigs that are capable of providing conventional and horizontal drilling services. Our rigs encompass various sizes and capabilities, allowing us to service all types of oil and gas wells. Many of our rigs are outfitted with our proprietary KeyView® technology, which captures and reports well site operating data and provides safety control systems. We believe that this technology allows our customers and our crews to better monitor well site operations, improves efficiency and safety, and adds value to the services that we offer.
The completion and recompletion services provided by our rigs prepare wells for production, whether newly drilled or recently extended through a workover operation. The completion process may involve selectively perforating the well casing to access production zones, stimulating and testing these zones, and installing tubular and downhole equipment. We typically provide a well service rig and may also provide other equipment to assist in the completion process. Completion services vary by well and our work may take a few days to several weeks to perform, depending on the nature of the completion.
The workover services that we provide are designed to enhance the production of existing wells and generally are more complex and time consuming than normal maintenance services. Workover services can include deepening or extending wellbores into new formations by drilling horizontal or lateral wellbores, sealing off depleted production zones and accessing previously bypassed production zones, converting former production wells into injection wells for enhanced recovery operations and conducting major subsurface repairs due to equipment failures. Workover services may last from a few days to several weeks, depending on the complexity of the workover.
Maintenance services provided with our rig fleet are generally required throughout the life cycle of an oil or natural gas well. Examples of these maintenance services include routine mechanical repairs to the pumps, tubing and other equipment, removing debris and formation material from wellbores, and pulling rods and other downhole equipment from wellbores to identify and resolve production problems. Maintenance services are generally less complicated than completion and workover related services and require less time to perform.
Our rig fleet is also used in the process of permanently shutting-in oil or natural gas wells that are at the end of their productive lives. These plugging and abandonment services generally require auxiliary equipment in addition to a well servicing rig. The demand for plugging and abandonment services is not significantly impacted by the demand for oil and natural gas because well operators are required by state regulations to plug wells that are no longer productive.
We believe that the largest competitors for our U.S. Rig Services include C & J Energy Services, Inc., Basic Energy Services, Inc., Superior Energy Services, Inc., Forbes Energy Services Ltd., Pioneer Energy Services Corp and Nine Energy Services. Numerous smaller companies also compete in our rig-based markets in the United States.
Fluid Management Services
We provide transportation and well-site storage services for various fluids utilized in connection with drilling, completions, workover and maintenance activities. We also provide disposal services for fluids produced subsequent to well completion. These fluids are removed from the well site and transported for disposal in saltwater disposal (“SWD”) wells owned by us or a third party. Demand and pricing for these services generally correspond to demand for our well service rigs.
We believe that the largest competitors for our domestic fluid management services include Select Energy Services, Basic Energy Services, Inc., Superior Energy Services, Inc., C & J Energy Services, Inc., Nuverra Environmental Solutions, Forbes