Key Energy Services, Inc. and Subsidiaries
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
We issue or have issued time-based vesting and performance-based vesting stock options, time-based vesting and performance-based vesting restricted stock units, and restricted stock awards to our employees as part of those employees’ compensation and as a retention tool for non-employee directors. We calculate the fair value of the awards on the grant date and amortize that fair value to compensation expense ratably over the vesting period of the award, net of forfeitures. The grant-date fair value of our time-based restricted stock units and restricted stock awards is determined using our stock price on the grant date. The grant-date fair value of our performance-based restricted stock units is determined using our stock price on the grant date assuming a 1.0x payout target, however, a maximum 2.0x payout could be achieved if certain EBITDA-based performance measures are met. The fair value of our stock option awards are estimated using a Black-Scholes fair value model. The valuation of our stock options requires us to estimate the expected term of award, which we estimate using the simplified method, as we do not have sufficient historical exercise information. Additionally, the valuation of our stock option awards is also dependent on historical stock price volatility. In view of the limited amount of time elapsed since our reorganization, volatility is calculated based on historical stock price volatility of our peer group with a lookback period equivalent to the expected term of the award. Fair value of performance-based stock options and restricted stock units is estimated in the same manner as our time-based awards and assumes that performance goals will be achieved and the awards will vest. If the performance based awards do not vest, any previously recognized compensation costs will be reversed. We record share-based compensation as a component of general and administrative or direct operating expense based on the role of the applicable individual. See “Note 21. Share-Based Compensation.”
Foreign Currency Gains and Losses
With respect to our former operations in Russia, which was sold in the third quarter of 2017, where the local currency was the functional currency, assets and liabilities were translated at the rates of exchange in effect on the balance sheet date, while income and expense items were translated at average rates of exchange during the period. The resulting gains or losses arising from the translation of accounts from the functional currency to the U.S. dollar were included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity in other comprehensive income until a partial or complete sale or liquidation of our net investment in the foreign entity. See “Note 18. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss.”
From time to time our former foreign subsidiaries may have entered into transactions that are denominated in currencies other than their functional currency. These transactions were initially recorded in the functional currency of that subsidiary based on the applicable exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction. At the end of each month, those transactions were remeasured to an equivalent amount of the functional currency based on the applicable exchange rates in effect at that time. Any adjustment required to remeasure a transaction to the equivalent amount of the functional currency at the end of the month was recorded in the income or loss of the foreign subsidiary as a component of other income, net.
We display comprehensive loss and its components in our financial statements, and we classify items of comprehensive income (loss) by their nature in our financial statements and display the accumulated balance of other comprehensive income (loss) separately in our stockholders’ equity.
We lease real property and equipment through various leasing arrangements. When we enter into a leasing arrangement, we analyze the terms of the arrangement to determine whether the lease should be accounted for as an operating lease or a capital lease.
We periodically incur costs to improve the assets that we lease under these arrangements. If the value of the leasehold improvements exceeds our threshold for capitalization, we record the improvement as a component of our property and equipment and amortize the improvement over the useful life of the improvement or the lease term, whichever is shorter.
Certain of our operating lease agreements are structured to include scheduled and specified rent increases over the term of the lease agreement. These increases may be the result of an inducement or “rent holiday” conveyed to us early in the lease, or are included to reflect the anticipated effects of inflation. We recognize scheduled and specified rent increases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease agreement. In addition, certain of our operating lease agreements contain incentives to induce us to enter into the lease agreement, such as up-front cash payments to us, payment by the lessor of our costs, such as moving expenses, or the assumption by the lessor of our pre-existing lease agreements with third parties. Any payments made to us or on our behalf represent incentives that we consider to be a reduction of our rent expense, and are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease agreement.