Key Energy Services, Inc. and Subsidiaries
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
contingent liability when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable. See “Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies.”
Our operations routinely involve the storage, handling, transport and disposal of bulk waste materials, some of which contain oil, contaminants, and regulated substances. These operations are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations intended to protect the environment. Environmental expenditures are expensed or capitalized depending on their future economic benefit. Expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and that have no future economic benefits are expensed. We record liabilities on an undiscounted basis when our remediation efforts are probable and the costs to conduct such remediation efforts can be reasonably estimated. While our litigation reserves reflect the application of our insurance coverage, our environmental reserves do not reflect management’s assessment of the insurance coverage that may apply to the matters at issue. See “Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies.”
We are primarily self-insured against physical damage to our equipment and automobiles as well as workers’ compensation claims. The accruals that we maintain on our consolidated balance sheet relate to these deductibles and self-insured retentions, which we estimate through the use of historical claims data and trend analysis. To assist management with the liability amount for our self-insurance reserves, we utilize the services of a third party actuary. The actual outcome of any claim could differ significantly from estimated amounts. We adjust loss estimates in the calculation of these accruals, based upon actual claim settlements and reported claims. See “Note 17. Commitments and Contingencies.”
We account for deferred income taxes using the asset and liability method and provide income taxes for all significant temporary differences. Management determines our current tax liability as well as taxes incurred as a result of current operations, yet deferred until future periods. Current taxes payable represent our liability related to our income tax returns for the current year, while net deferred tax expense or benefit represents the change in the balance of deferred tax assets and liabilities reported on our consolidated balance sheets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Further, management makes certain assumptions about the timing of temporary tax differences for the differing treatment of certain items for tax and accounting purposes or whether such differences are permanent. The final determination of our tax liability involves the interpretation of local tax laws, tax treaties, and related authorities in each jurisdiction as well as the significant use of estimates and assumptions regarding the scope of future operations and results achieved and the timing and nature of income earned and expenditures incurred.
We record valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets if we determine that it is more likely than not (e.g., a likelihood of more than 50%) that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized in future periods. To assess the likelihood, we use estimates and judgment regarding our future taxable income, as well as the jurisdiction in which this taxable income is generated, to determine whether a valuation allowance is required. The ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets depends on the ability to generate sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character and in the related jurisdiction in the future. Evidence supporting this ability can include our current financial position, our results of operations, both actual and forecasted results, the reversal of deferred tax liabilities, and tax planning strategies as well as the current and forecasted business economics of our industry. Additionally, we record uncertain tax positions in the financial statements at their net recognizable amount, based on the amount that management deems is more likely than not to be sustained upon ultimate settlement with the tax authorities in the domestic and international tax jurisdictions in which we operate.
If our estimates or assumptions regarding our current and deferred tax items are inaccurate or are modified, these changes could have potentially material negative impacts on our earnings. See “Note 15. Income Taxes” for further discussion of accounting for income taxes, changes in our valuation allowance, components of our tax rate reconciliation and realization of loss carryforwards.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per common share is determined by dividing net earnings applicable to common stock by the weighted average number of common shares actually outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share is based on the increased number of shares that would be outstanding assuming conversion of dilutive outstanding convertible securities using the treasury stock and “as if converted” methods. See “Note 12. Earnings Per Share.”