Assumptions used in our fair value estimates are as follow: (i) discount rates; (ii) royalty rates; (iii) projected average revenue growth rates; and (iv) projected long-term growth rates. The testing also factors in economic conditions and expectations of management and may change in the future based on period-specific facts and circumstances. During FY 2018 and FY 2017, there were no impairments of long-lived assets other than the non-cash impairment charges for goodwill and trademarks. See Note 4 for further details.
Goodwill and Trademarks
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations accounted for under the purchase method of accounting. On an annual basis and as needed, the Company tests goodwill and indefinite life trademarks for impairment through the use of discounted cash flow models. Other intangibles with determinable lives, including certain trademarks, license agreements and non-compete agreements, are evaluated for the possibility of impairment when certain indicators are present, and are otherwise amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets (currently ranging from 1 to 15 years). Assumptions used in our fair value estimates are as follow: (i) discount rates; (ii) royalty rates; (iii) projected average revenue growth rates; and (iv) projected long-term growth rates. The testing also factors in economic conditions and expectations of management and may change in the future based on period-specific facts and circumstances. In the second quarter of 2018, and third quarter of 2017, the Company recognized non-cash impairment charge for goodwill of $37.8 million, and $103.9 million, respectively. In the FY 2018 and FY 2017, the Company recognized non-cash impairment charge for trademarks of $136.4 million and $525.7 million, respectively. Refer to Note 4 for further details.
Non-controlling Interests / Redeemable Non-controlling Interests
Certain of the Company’s consolidated joint ventures have put options which, if exercised by the Company’s joint venture partner, would require the Company to purchase all or a portion of the joint venture partner’s equity interest in the joint venture. The Company has determined that these put options are not derivatives under the guidelines prescribed in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815. As such, and in accordance with ASC 480-10-S99, as the potential exercise of the put options is outside the control of the Company, the Company has recorded the portion of the non-controlling interest’s equity that may be put to the Company in mezzanine equity in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as “redeemable non-controlling interest”. The initial value of the redeemable non-controlling interest represents the fair value of the put option at inception. This amount recorded at inception is accreted, over a period determined by when the put option becomes exercisable, to what the Company would be obligated to pay to the non-controlling interest holder if the put option was exercised. This accretion is recorded as a credit to redeemable non-controlling interest and a debit to retained earnings resulting in an impact to the consolidated balance sheet only. For each reporting period, the Company revisits the estimates used to determine the redemption value of the put option when it becomes exercisable and may adjust the remaining put option value and associated accretion accordingly through redeemable non-controlling interest and retained earnings, as necessary. The terms of each of the outstanding put options are included in the individual discussions of each joint venture, as applicable. For the Company’s consolidated joint ventures that do not have put options, the non-controlling interest is recorded within equity on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.
The Company may enter into joint venture agreements with joint venture partners in which the Company allows the joint venture partner to pay a portion of the purchase price in cash at the time of the formation of the joint venture with the remaining cash consideration paid over a specified period of time following the closing of such transaction. The Company records the amounts due from such joint venture partners as (a) a reduction of Non-controlling Interests, net of installment payments, or (b) if installment payments result from the issuance of shares classified as mezzanine equity, as a reduction in Redeemable Non-controlling Interests, net of installment payments (i.e. mezzanine equity), as applicable, in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet in accordance with ASC 505-10-45, “Classification of a Receivable from a Shareholder.” The Company accretes the present value discount on these installment payments through interest income on its consolidated statements of operations.
The Company enters into various license agreements that provide revenues based on minimum royalties and advertising/ marketing fees and additional revenues based on a percentage of defined sales. Minimum royalty and advertising/ marketing revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the full contract term. Minimum royalties that escalate on an annual basis over the contract term are recognized on a straight-line basis over the full contract term. Royalties exceeding the defined minimum amounts in a specific contract year (sales-based royalties), as defined in each license agreement, are recognized only in the subsequent periods to when the minimum guarantee for the contract year has been achieved and when the later of the following events occur: (i) the subsequent sale occurs, or (ii) the performance obligation to which some or all of the sales-based royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).