|INTUITIVE SURGICAL INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/02/2018|
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Capitalized Software Costs for Internal Use
Internally developed software primarily includes enterprise-level business software that the Company customizes to meet its specific operational needs. The Company capitalized costs for internal use software of $22.4 million, $11.8 million, and $14.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. Upon being placed in service, these costs are depreciated over an estimated useful life of up to 5 years.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortized, but are tested for impairment at least annually during the fourth fiscal quarter, or if circumstances indicate their value may no longer be recoverable. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and identifiable intangible assets. The Company continues to operate in one segment, which is considered to be the sole reporting unit and, therefore, goodwill was tested for impairment at the enterprise level. As of December 31, 2017, there has been no impairment of goodwill.
Intangible assets are carried at cost, net of accumulated amortization. The Company does not have intangible assets with indefinite useful lives other than goodwill. Amortization is recorded on a straight-line basis over the intangible assets' useful lives, which range from approximately 1 to 9 years.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company evaluates long-lived assets, which include amortizable intangible and tangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparing the net book value to the future undiscounted cash flows attributable to such assets. The Company recognizes an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the net book value exceeds its fair value. No material impairment losses were incurred in the periods presented.
The Company’s revenue consists of product revenue resulting from the sales of systems, instruments and accessories, and service revenue. The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or service has been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue is presented net of taxes collected from customers that are remitted to government authorities. The Company generally recognizes revenue at the following points in time:
•System sales. For systems, system components, or system accessories sold directly to end customers, revenue is recognized when acceptance occurs, which is deemed to have occurred upon customer acknowledgment of delivery or installation, depending on the terms of the arrangement. For systems sold through distributors, revenue is recognized when title and risk of loss has transferred, which generally occurs at the time of shipment. Distributors do not have price protection rights and the Company’s system arrangements generally do not provide a right of return. The da Vinci Surgical Systems are delivered with a software component. However, because the software and non-software elements function together to deliver the system’s essential functionality, the Company's arrangements are excluded from being accounted for under software revenue recognition guidance.
•Instruments and accessories. Revenue from sales of instruments and accessories is generally recognized at the time of shipment. The Company allows its customers in the normal course of business to return unused products for a limited period of time subsequent to initial purchase and records an allowance against revenue recognized based on historical experience.
•Service. Service revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the service period. Revenue related to services performed on a time-and-materials basis is recognized when it is earned and billable.
The Company offers its customers the opportunity to trade in their older systems for credit towards the purchase of a newer generation system. The Company generally does not provide specified price trade-in rights or upgrade rights at the time of system purchase. Such trade-in or upgrade transactions are separately negotiated based on the circumstances at the time of the trade-in or upgrade, based on the then fair value of the system, and are generally not based on any pre-existing rights granted by the Company. Accordingly, such trade-ins and upgrades are not considered as separate deliverables in the arrangement for a system sale.
As part of a trade-in transaction, the customer receives a new generation system in exchange for its pre-owned system. The trade-in credit is negotiated at the time of the trade-in and is applied towards the purchase price of the new generation unit. Traded-in systems can be reconditioned and resold. The Company accounts for trade-ins consistent with the guidance in AICPA Technical Practice Aid 5100.01, Equipment Sales Net of Trade-Ins (“TPA 5100.01”). The Company applies the accounting guidance by crediting system revenue for the negotiated price of the new generation system, while the difference between (a) the trade-in allowance and (b) the net realizable value of the traded-in system less a normal profit margin is treated as a sales allowance. The value of the traded-in system is determined as the amount, after reconditioning costs are added, that will allow a normal profit
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