|INTUITIVE SURGICAL INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/02/2018|
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Patents are granted for finite terms. Upon expiration, the inventions claimed in a patent enter the public domain.
Our products and operations are subject to regulation by the FDA, the State of California, and countries or regions in which we market our products. In addition, our products must meet the requirements of a large and growing body of international standards which govern the design, manufacture, materials content and sourcing, testing, certification, packaging, installation, use, and disposal of our products. We must continually keep abreast of these standards and requirements and integrate our compliance into the development and regulatory documentation for our products. Failure to meet these standards could limit our ability to market our products in those regions which require compliance to such standards. Examples of standards to which we are subject include electrical safety standards such as those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (e.g. IEC 60601-ss series of standards), and composition standards such as the Reduction of Hazardous Substances (“RoHS”) and the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) Directives.
The FDA regulates the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, promotion, marketing, distribution, and service of medical devices in the U.S. to ensure that medical products distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses. In addition, the FDA regulates the export of medical devices manufactured in the U.S. to markets outside of the U.S. and the importation of medical devices manufactured abroad.
Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FFDCA”), medical devices are classified into one of three classes—Class I, Class II or Class III—depending on the degree of risk associated with each medical device and the extent of control needed to ensure safety and effectiveness. Our current products are Class I and Class II medical devices.
Class II devices are those which are subject to general controls and most require premarket demonstration of adherence to certain performance standards or other special controls, as specified by the FDA, and clearance by the FDA. Premarket review and clearance by the FDA for these devices is accomplished through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Unless a Class II
device is exempt from premarket review, the manufacturer must submit to the FDA a premarket notification submission demonstrating that the device is “substantially equivalent” in intended use and technology to a “predicate device” that is either:
If the FDA agrees that the device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device, it will grant clearance to commercially market the device in the U.S. The FDA has a statutory 90-day period to respond to a 510(k) submission, or a guidance-based 30-day period for “special” 510(k) submissions which have a more restrictive scope and generally involve more specific or very limited changes to a legally marketed device. As a practical matter, clearance often takes longer. The FDA may require further information, including clinical data, to make a determination regarding substantial equivalence. If the FDA determines that the device, or its intended use, is not “substantially equivalent,” the FDA may deny the request for clearance. Although unlikely for the types of products marketed by us, the FDA may classify the device, or the particular use of the device, into Class III, and the device sponsor must then fulfill more rigorous pre-market approval (“PMA”) requirements. A PMA application, which is intended to demonstrate that a device is safe and effective, must be supported by extensive data, including data from preclinical studies and human clinical trials. The FDA, by statute and regulation, has 180 days to review a PMA application, though the review more often occurs over a significantly longer period of time, and can take up to several years. In approving a PMA application or clearing a 510(k) submission, the FDA may also require some form of post-market surveillance when necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device. In such cases, the manufacturer might be required to follow certain patient groups for a number of years and makes periodic reports to the FDA on the clinical status of those patients.
After a device receives FDA 510(k) clearance, any modification that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, requires a new 510(k) clearance or could require a PMA application approval. The FDA requires each manufacturer to make the determination of whether a modification requires a new 510(k) notification or PMA application in the first instance, but the FDA can review any such decision. If the FDA disagrees with a manufacturer’s decision not to seek a new 510(k) clearance or PMA approval for a particular change, the FDA may retroactively require the manufacturer to seek 510(k) clearance or PMA approval. The FDA also can require the manufacturer to cease U.S. marketing and/or recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or PMA approval is obtained.
In addition, after a device is placed on the market, numerous FDA and other regulatory requirements continue to apply. These include establishment registration and device listing with the FDA; compliance with medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if it were to recur; and compliance with corrections and removal reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FFDCA that may present a risk to health. The FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) also regulate the advertising and promotion of our products to ensure that the claims we make are consistent with our regulatory clearances, that there is scientific data to substantiate the claims and that our advertising is neither false nor misleading. In general, we may not promote or advertise our products for uses not within the scope of our intended use statement in our clearances or make unsupported safety and effectiveness claims. Many regulatory jurisdictions outside of the U.S. have similar regulations to which we are subject.
Our manufacturing processes are required to comply with the FDA’s Good Manufacturing Practice (“GMP”) requirements contained in its Quality System Regulation (“QSR”) and associated regulations and guidance. The QSR covers, among other things, the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the design, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, installation, and servicing of all medical devices intended for human use. The QSR also requires maintenance of extensive records which demonstrate compliance with FDA regulation, the manufacturer’s own procedures, specifications, and testing as well as distribution and post-market experience. Compliance with the QSR is necessary to receive FDA clearance or approval to market new products and is necessary for a manufacturer to be able to continue to market cleared or approved product offerings in the U.S. A company’s facilities, records, and manufacturing processes are subject to periodic scheduled or unscheduled inspections by the FDA, which may issue reports known as Forms FDA 483 or Notices of Inspectional Observations which list instances where the FDA inspector believes the manufacturer has failed to comply with applicable regulations and/or procedures. If the observations are sufficiently serious or the manufacturer fails to respond appropriately, the FDA may issue Warning Letters, or Untitled Letters, which are notices of potential enforcement actions against the manufacturer. If a Warning Letter or Untitled Letter is not addressed to the satisfaction of the FDA, or if the FDA becomes aware of any other serious issue with a manufacturer’s products or facilities, it could result in fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of clearances, seizures or recalls of products, operating restrictions, total shutdown of production facilities, prohibition on export or import and criminal prosecution. Such actions may have further indirect consequences for the manufacturer outside of the U.S., and may adversely affect the reputation of the manufacturer and the product. In the U.S., routine FDA inspections usually occur every two years, and may occur more often for cause.
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