Favorable / (Unfavorable)
Cost of sales
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Research, development and engineering expenses
Total change in operating income
Other non-operating income, net
Total change in income before income taxes
In January 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to goodwill impairment testing to simplify the annual testing process. Under the amendment, the impairment of goodwill is now calculated as the difference between the fair value of the reporting unit and the carrying value of the reporting unit. Step two of the former impairment model is no longer required. We early adopted this standard in the fourth quarter of 2018 as allowed by the amendment, in order to streamline our impairment testing process. The standard applies prospectively beginning with our assessments performed in the fourth quarter. As we did not have any impairments of goodwill during the year, adoption of the standard did not have an impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the classification of certain cash receipts and cash payments which became effective for us beginning January 1, 2018. The new standard made eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for certain financial instruments which became effective for us beginning January 1, 2018. This amendment addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. The standard resulted in a cumulative effect increase to opening retained earnings of $2 million in our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued But Not Yet Effective
In August 2018, the FASB issued a new standard that aligns the accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement accounted for as a service contract with the model currently used for internal use software costs. Under the new standard, costs that meet certain criteria will be required to be capitalized on the balance sheet and subsequently amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement. The standard is effective for us beginning on January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The standard allows for either prospective or retrospective transition. We are still evaluating the impact of this standard on our financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for derivatives and hedging. These amendments allow the initial hedge effectiveness assessment to be performed by the end of the first quarter in which the hedge is designated rather than concurrently with entering into the hedge transaction. The changes also expand the use of a periodic qualitative hedge effectiveness assessment in lieu of an ongoing quantitative assessment performed throughout the life of the hedge. The revision removes the requirement to record ineffectiveness on cash flow hedges through the income statement when a hedge is considered highly effective, instead deferring all related hedge gains and losses in other comprehensive income until the hedged item impacts earnings. The modifications permit hedging the contractually-specified price of a component of a commodity purchase and revises certain disclosure requirements. The amendments are effective January 1, 2019. The revised standard is required to be adopted on a modified retrospective basis for any cash flow or net investment hedge relationships that exist on the date of adoption and prospectively for disclosures. We do not expect the amendments to have a material effect on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In June 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to accounting for credit losses on financial instruments. This amendment introduces new guidance for accounting for credit losses on instruments including trade receivables and held-to-maturity debt securities. The new rules are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2016, the FASB amended its standards related to the accounting for leases. Under the new standard, lessees will now be required to recognize substantially all leases on the balance sheet as both a right-of-use asset and a liability. The standard will continue to have two types of leases for income statement recognition purposes: operating leases and finance leases. Operating leases will result in the recognition of a single lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term