RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB amended its standards related to revenue recognition to replace all existing revenue recognition guidance and provide a single, comprehensive model for all contracts with customers. The revised standard contains principles to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that we recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. Other major provisions include capitalization of certain contract costs, consideration of the time value of money in the transaction price and allowing estimation of variable consideration to be recognized before contingencies are resolved in certain circumstances. The amendment also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in those judgments as well as assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill these contracts.
The standard allowed for either full or modified retrospective adoption effective for annual and interim periods beginning January 1, 2018 and we adopted using the modified retrospective approach. We elected to apply this guidance retrospectively only to contracts that were not completed at January 1, 2018.
We identified a change in the manner in which we account for certain license income. We license certain technology to our unconsolidated joint ventures that meets the definition of functional under the standard, which requires that revenue be recognized at a point in time rather than the previous requirement of recognizing it over the license term. Using the modified retrospective adoption method, we recorded an adjustment to our opening equity balance at January 1, 2018, to account for the differences between existing license income recorded and what would have been recorded under the new standard for contracts for which we started recognizing revenue prior to the adoption date. There was not a material impact on any individual year from this change.
We also identified transactions where revenue recognition was historically limited to the amount of billings not contingent on our future performance. With the allocation provisions of the new model, we accelerated the timing of revenue recognition for amounts related to satisfied performance obligations that would be delayed under the historical guidance. The impact of this change was not material.
On an ongoing basis, this amendment is not expected to have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements including our internal controls over financial reporting, but resulted in expanded disclosures in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We recorded a net increase to opening retained earnings of $28 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018, due to the cumulative impact of adopting the new revenue standard, with the impact primarily related to our technology licenses that now qualify for point in time recognition rather than over time. The impact to any individual financial statement line item as a result of applying the new standard, as compared to the old standard, was not material for the year ended December 31, 2018.
In August 2018, the FASB amended its standards related to the disclosures of pension and other postretirement benefit plans in the financial statements. The amendments removed certain existing disclosure requirements and added the requirement to disclose an explanation of the reasons for significant gains and losses related to changes in the benefit obligation for the period. The amendments also clarified the existing disclosure requirements related to the projected benefit obligation (PBO), the fair value of plan assets for plans with PBOs in excess of plan assets and the accumulated benefit obligation (ABO) and fair value of plan assets for plans with ABOs in excess of plan assets. These amendments are required to be applied on a retrospective basis to all periods presented. We early adopted the amendments at December 31, 2018.
In March 2017, the FASB amended its standards related to the presentation of pension and other postretirement benefit costs in the financial statements beginning January 1, 2018. Under the new standard, we are required to separate service costs from all other elements of pension costs and reflect the other elements of pension costs outside of operating income in our Consolidated Statements of Income. In addition, the standard limits the amount eligible for capitalization (into inventory or self-constructed assets) to the amount of service cost. This portion of the standard was applied on a prospective basis. The remainder of the new standard was applied on a retrospective basis using a practical expedient as the estimation basis for the reclassification of prior period non-service cost components of net periodic benefit cost from operating income to non-operating income. As a result, we revised our Consolidated Statements of Income by the following amounts: