SEC Filings

CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019
Entire Document

Property, Plant and Equipment
We record property, plant and equipment, inclusive of assets under capital leases, at cost. We depreciate the cost of the majority of our property, plant and equipment using the straight-line method with depreciable lives ranging from 20 to 40 years for buildings and 3 to 15 years for machinery, equipment and fixtures. Capital lease amortization is recorded in depreciation expense. We expense normal maintenance and repair costs as incurred. Depreciation expense totaled $455 million, $467 million and $434 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. See NOTE 7, "PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT," for additional information.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We review our long-lived assets for possible impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of the carrying value of the long-lived assets at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. An impairment of a long-lived asset or asset group exists when the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) estimated to be generated by the asset or asset group is less than its carrying value. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset or asset group, an impairment loss is measured based on the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying value of the asset or asset group. Assumptions and estimates used to estimate cash flows in the evaluation of impairment and the fair values used to determine the impairment are subject to a degree of judgment and complexity. Any changes to the assumptions and estimates resulting from changes in actual results or market conditions from those anticipated may affect the carrying value of long-lived assets and could result in a future impairment charge.
Under GAAP for goodwill, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform an annual quantitative goodwill impairment test. We have elected this option on certain reporting units. The quantitative impairment test is only required if an entity determines through this qualitative analysis that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value. In addition, the carrying value of goodwill must be tested for impairment on an interim basis in certain circumstances where impairment may be indicated. We adopted the FASB's revised rules for goodwill impairment testing in 2018, which simplified the subsequent measurement of goodwill by removing the second step of the two-step impairment test.  The amendment requires an entity to perform its annual, or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount.  An impairment charge should be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.
When we are required or opt to perform the quantitative impairment test, the fair value of each reporting unit is estimated by discounting the after tax future cash flows less requirements for working capital and fixed asset additions. Our reporting units are generally defined as one level below an operating segment. However, there are two situations where we have aggregated two or more reporting units which share similar economic characteristics and thus are aggregated into a single reporting unit for testing purposes. These two situations are described further below:
Within our Components segment, our emission solutions and filtration businesses have been aggregated into a single reporting unit and
Our Distribution segment is considered a single reporting unit as it is managed geographically and all regions share similar economic characteristics and provide similar products and services.
Our valuation method requires us to make projections of revenue, operating expenses, working capital investment and fixed asset additions for the reporting units over a multi-year period. Additionally, management must estimate a weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects a market rate, for each reporting unit for use as a discount rate. The discounted cash flows are compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit and, if less than the carrying value, the difference is recorded as a goodwill impairment loss. In addition, we also perform a sensitivity analysis to determine how much our forecasts can fluctuate before the fair value of a reporting unit would be lower than its carrying amount. We perform the required procedures as of the end of our fiscal third quarter. We determined that the automated transmission business is our only reporting unit with material goodwill where the estimated fair value does not substantially exceed the carrying value. The estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount by approximately 21 percent. Total goodwill in this reporting unit is $544 million and the total carrying amount at the time of the evaluation was $1,200 million. This reporting unit is made up of only one business, our joint venture with Eaton (Eaton Cummins Automated Transmission Technologies) which was acquired and recorded at fair value in the third quarter of 2017. As a result, we did not expect that the estimated fair value would exceed the carrying value by a significant amount.