|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
A three-level valuation hierarchy, based upon the observable and unobservable inputs, is used for fair value measurements. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions based on the best evidence available. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
We make use of derivative instruments in foreign exchange, commodity price and interest rate hedging programs. Derivatives currently in use are foreign currency forward contracts, commodity physical forward contracts, options and interest rate swaps. These contracts are used strictly for hedging and not for speculative purposes.
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. We manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the use of interest rate swaps. The objective of the swaps is to more effectively balance our borrowing costs and interest rate risk. The gain or loss on these derivative instruments as well as the offsetting gain or loss on the hedged item are recognized in current income as "Interest expense." For more detail on our interest rate swaps, see NOTE 10, "DEBT."
Due to our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk. We transact in foreign currencies and have assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. Consequently, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. In order to benefit from global diversification and after considering naturally offsetting currency positions, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize our existing exposures (recognized assets and liabilities) and hedge forecasted transactions. Foreign currency forward contracts are designated and qualify as foreign currency cash flow hedges under GAAP. The effective portion of the unrealized gain or loss on the forward contract is deferred and reported as a component of AOCL. When the hedged forecasted transaction (sale or purchase) occurs, the unrealized gain or loss is reclassified into income in the same line item associated with the hedged transaction in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects income.
To minimize the income volatility resulting from the remeasurement of net monetary assets and payables denominated in a currency other than the functional currency, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, which are considered economic hedges. The objective is to offset the gain or loss from remeasurement with the gain or loss from the fair market valuation of the forward contract. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedges under GAAP.
We are exposed to fluctuations in commodity prices due to contractual agreements with component suppliers. In order to protect ourselves against future price volatility and, consequently, fluctuations in gross margins, we periodically enter into commodity physical forward contracts and zero-cost collar contracts with designated banks and other counterparties to fix the cost of certain raw material purchases with the objective of minimizing changes in inventory cost due to market price fluctuations. The physical forward contracts qualify for the normal purchases scope exceptions and are treated as purchase commitments. The commodity zero-cost collar contracts that represent an economic hedge, but are not designated for hedge accounting, are marked to market through earnings.
We determine our income tax expense using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Future tax benefits of net operating loss and credit carryforwards are also recognized as deferred tax assets. We evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets each quarter by assessing the likelihood of future profitability and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize our net deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the tax assets to the net value management believes is more likely than not to be realized. In the event our operating performance deteriorates, future assessments could conclude that a larger valuation