SEC Filings

CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019
Entire Document

For volume rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities for attaining specified volumes during a particular quarter or year. We consider the expected amount of these rebates at the time of the original sale as we determine the overall transaction price. We update our assessment of the amount of rebates that will be earned quarterly based on our best estimate of the volume levels the customer will reach during the measurement period. For market share rebates, we provide certain customers with rebate opportunities based on the percentage of their production that utilizes our product. These rebates are typically measured either quarterly or annually and we assess them at least quarterly to determine our current estimates of amounts expected to be earned. These estimates are considered in the determination of transaction price at the time of the original sale based on the current market shares, with adjustments made as the level changes. For aftermarket rebates, we provide incentives to promote sales to certain dealers and end-markets. These rebates are typically paid on a quarterly, or more frequent basis. At the time of the sales, we consider the expected amount of these rebates when determining the overall transaction price. Estimates are adjusted at the end of each quarter based on the amounts yet to be paid. These estimates are based on historical experience with the particular program.

Sales Returns

The initial determination of the transaction price may also be impacted by expected product returns. Rights of return do not exist for the majority of our sales other than for quality issues. We do offer certain return rights in our aftermarket business, where some aftermarket customers are permitted to return small amounts of parts and filters each year, and in our power generation business, which sells portable generators to retail customers. An estimate of future returns is accounted for at the time of sale as a reduction in the overall contract transaction price based on historical return rates.

Multiple Performance Obligations

Our sales arrangements may include multiple performance obligations. We identify each of the material performance obligations in these arrangements and allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative selling price. In most cases, the individual performance obligations are also sold separately and we use that price as the basis for allocating revenue to the included performance obligations. When an arrangement includes multiple performance obligations and invoicing to the customer does not match the allocated portion of the transaction price, unbilled revenue or deferred revenue is recorded reflecting that difference. Unbilled and deferred revenue are discussed in more detail below.

Long-term Contracts

Our long-term maintenance agreements often include a variable component of the transaction price. We are generally compensated under such arrangements on a cost per hour of usage basis. We typically can estimate the expected usage over the life of the contract, but reassess the transaction price each quarter and adjust our recognized revenue accordingly. Certain maintenance agreements apply to generators used to provide standby power, which have limited expectations of usage. These agreements may include monthly minimum payments, providing some certainty to the total transaction price. For these particular contracts that relate to standby power, we limit revenue recognized to date to an amount representing the total minimums earned to date under the contract plus any cumulative billings earned in excess of the minimums. We reassess the estimates of progress and transaction price on a quarterly basis. For prime power arrangements, revenue is not subject to such a constraint and is generally equal to the current estimate on a percentage of completion basis times the total expected revenue under the contract.

Most of our contracts are for a period of less than one year. We have certain long-term maintenance agreements, construction contracts and extended warranty coverage arrangements that span a period in excess of one year. The aggregate amount of the transaction price for long-term maintenance agreements and construction contracts allocated to performance obligations that have not been satisfied as of December 31, 2018, was $710 million. We expect to recognize the related revenue of $211 million over the next 12 months and $499 million over periods up to 10 years. See NOTE 9 ,"PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY," for additional disclosures on extended warranty coverage arrangements. Our other contracts generally are for a duration of less than one year, include payment terms that correspond to the timing of cost incurred when providing goods and services to our customers or represent sale-based royalties.

Deferred and Unbilled Revenue

The timing of our billing does not always match the timing of our revenue recognition. We record deferred revenue when we are entitled to bill a customer in advance of when we are permitted to recognize revenue. Deferred revenue may arise in construction contracts, where billings may occur in advance of performance or in accordance with specific milestones. Deferred revenue may also occur in long-term maintenance contracts, where billings are often based on usage of the underlying equipment, which generally follows a predictable pattern that often will result in the accumulation of collections in advance of