|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
and other postretirement benefit costs, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances, lease classification and contingencies. Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in making estimates, actual results reported in future periods may be different from these estimates.
We sell to customers either through long-term arrangements or standalone purchase orders. Our long-term arrangements generally do not include committed volumes until underlying purchase orders are issued. Our performance obligations vary by contract, but may include diesel and natural gas engines and engine-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions, power generation systems and construction related projects, batteries, battery systems, parts, maintenance services and extended warranty coverage.
Typically, we recognize revenue on the products we sell at a point in time, generally in accordance with shipping terms, which reflects the transfer of control to the customer. Since control of construction projects transfer to the customer as the work is performed, revenue on these projects is recognized based on the percentage of inputs incurred to date compared to the total expected cost of inputs, which is reflective of the value transferred to the customer. Revenue is recognized under long-term maintenance and other service agreements over the term of the agreement as underlying services are performed based on the percentage of the cost of services provided to date compared to the total expected cost of services to be provided under the contract. Sales of extended coverage are recognized based on the pattern of expected costs over the extended coverage period or, if such a pattern is unknown, on a straight-line basis over the coverage period as the customer is considered to benefit from our stand ready obligation over the coverage period. In all cases, we believe cost incurred is the most representative depiction of the extent of service performed to date on a particular contract.
Our arrangements may include the act of shipping products to our customers after the performance obligation related to that product has been satisfied. We have elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods and have not allocated revenue to the shipping activity. All related shipping and handling costs are accrued at the time of shipment.
Our sales arrangements may include the collection of sales and other similar taxes that are then remitted to the related taxing authority. We have elected to present the amounts collected for these taxes net of the related tax expense rather than presenting them as additional revenue.
We grant credit limits and terms to customers based upon traditional practices and competitive conditions. Typical terms vary by market, but payments are generally due in 90 days or less from invoicing for most of our product and service sales, while payments on construction and other similar arrangements may be due on an installment basis.
We provide various sales incentives to both our distribution network and OEM customers. These programs are designed to promote the sale of our products in the channel or encourage the usage of our products by OEM customers. When there is uncertainty surrounding these sales incentives, we may limit the amount of revenue we recognize under a contract until the uncertainty has been resolved. Sales incentives primarily fall into three categories: