SEC Filings

CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019
Entire Document

Nature of Operations
We were founded in 1919 as Cummins Engine Company, a corporation in Columbus, Indiana and one of the first diesel engine manufacturers. In 2001, we changed our name to Cummins Inc. We are a global power leader that designs, manufactures, distributes and services diesel and natural gas engines and powertrain-related component products, including filtration, aftertreatment, turbochargers, fuel systems, controls systems, air handling systems, transmissions, electric power generation systems, batteries and electrified power systems. We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), distributors, dealers and other customers worldwide. We serve our customers through a network of approximately 600 wholly-owned and independent distributor locations and over 7,600 dealer locations in more than 190 countries and territories.
Principles of Consolidation
Our Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of all wholly-owned and majority-owned domestic and foreign subsidiaries where our ownership is more than 50 percent of outstanding equity interests except for majority-owned subsidiaries that are considered variable interest entities (VIEs) where we are not deemed to have a controlling financial interest. In addition, we also consolidate, regardless of our ownership percentage, VIEs or joint ventures for which we are deemed to have a controlling financial interest. Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation. Where our ownership interest is less than 100 percent, the noncontrolling ownership interests are reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. The noncontrolling ownership interest in our income, net of tax, is classified as "Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests" in our Consolidated Statements of Income.
We have variable interests in several businesses accounted for under the equity method of accounting that are deemed to be VIEs and are subject to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP) for variable interest entities. Most of these VIEs are unconsolidated.
Certain amounts for 2017 and 2016 have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Investments in Equity Investees
We use the equity method to account for our investments in joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances in which we have the ability to exercise significant influence, generally represented by equity ownership or partnership equity of at least 20 percent but not more than 50 percent. Generally, under the equity method, original investments in these entities are recorded at cost and subsequently adjusted by our share of equity in income or losses after the date of acquisition. Investment amounts in excess of our share of an investee's net assets are amortized over the life of the related asset creating the excess. If the excess is goodwill, then it is not amortized. Equity in income or losses of each investee is recorded according to our level of ownership; if losses accumulate, we record our share of losses until our investment has been fully depleted. If our investment has been fully depleted, we recognize additional losses only when we are the primary funding source. We eliminate (to the extent of our ownership percentage) in our Consolidated Financial Statements the profit in inventory held by our equity method investees that has not yet been sold to a third-party. Our investments are classified as "Investments and advances related to equity method investees" in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our share of the results from joint ventures, affiliated companies and alliances is reported in our Consolidated Statements of Income as "Equity, royalty and interest income from investees," and is reported net of all applicable income taxes.
Our foreign equity investees are presented net of applicable foreign income taxes in our Consolidated Statements of Income. Our remaining United States (U.S.) equity investees are partnerships (non-taxable), thus there is no difference between gross or net of tax presentation as the investees are not taxed. See NOTE 3, "INVESTMENTS IN EQUITY INVESTEES," for additional information.
Use of Estimates in the Preparation of the Financial Statements
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts presented and disclosed in our Consolidated Financial Statements. Significant estimates and assumptions in these Consolidated Financial Statements require the exercise of judgment and are used for, but not limited to, estimates of future cash flows and other assumptions associated with goodwill and long-lived asset impairment tests, useful lives for depreciation and amortization, warranty programs, determination of discount rate and other assumptions for pensions