|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
business as well as the discount rate used to present value these future cash flows. A 100 basis point increase in the discount rate would result in a 15 percent decline in the fair value of the reporting unit.
RECENTLY ADOPTED AND RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
See Note 1, "SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES", to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to financial risk resulting from volatility in foreign exchange rates, interest rates and commodity prices. This risk is closely monitored and managed through the use of financial derivative instruments including foreign currency forward contracts, interest rate swaps, commodity zero-cost collars and physical forward contracts. These instruments, as further described below, are accounted for as cash flow or fair value hedges or as economic hedges not designated as hedges for accounting purposes. Financial derivatives are used expressly for hedging purposes and under no circumstances are they used for speculative purposes. When material, we adjust the estimated fair value of our derivative contracts for counterparty or our credit risk. None of our derivative instruments are subject to collateral requirements. Substantially all of our derivative contracts are subject to master netting arrangements which provide us with the option to settle certain contracts on a net basis when they settle on the same day with the same currency. In addition, these arrangements provide for a net settlement of all contracts with a given counterparty in the event that the arrangement is terminated due to the occurrence of default or a termination event.
We also enter into physical forward contracts with certain suppliers to purchase minimum volumes of commodities at contractually stated prices for various periods. These arrangements, as further described below, enable us to fix the prices of portions of our normal purchases of these commodities, which otherwise are subject to market volatility.
The following describes our risk exposures and provides the results of a sensitivity analysis performed at December 31, 2018. The sensitivity analysis assumes instantaneous, parallel shifts in foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices.
Foreign Exchange Rate Risk
As a result of our international business presence, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risks. We transact business in foreign currencies and, as a result, our income experiences some volatility related to movements in foreign currency exchange rates. To help manage our exposure to exchange rate volatility, we use foreign currency forward contracts on a regular basis to hedge forecasted intercompany and third-party sales and purchases denominated in non-functional currencies. Our foreign currency cash flow hedges generally mature within two years. These foreign currency forward contracts are designated and qualify as foreign currency cash flow hedges under GAAP. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, there were no circumstances that resulted in the discontinuance of a foreign currency cash flow hedge.
To minimize the income volatility resulting from the remeasurement of net monetary assets and payables denominated in a currency other than the functional currency, we enter into foreign currency forward contracts, which are considered economic hedges. The objective is to offset the gain or loss from remeasurement with the gain or loss from the fair market valuation of the forward contract. These derivative instruments are not designated as hedges under GAAP.
At December 31, 2018, the potential gain or loss in the fair value of our outstanding foreign currency contracts, assuming a hypothetical 10 percent fluctuation in the currencies of such contracts, would be approximately $91 million. The sensitivity analysis of the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates assumes the notional value to remain constant for the next 12 months. The analysis ignores the impact of foreign exchange movements on our competitive position and potential changes in sales levels. Any change in the value of the contracts, real or hypothetical, would be significantly offset by an inverse change in the value of the underlying hedged items.
Interest Rate Risk
We are exposed to market risk from fluctuations in interest rates. We manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations through the use of interest rate swaps. The objective of the swaps is to more effectively balance our borrowing costs and interest rate risk. See Note 10, "DEBT," "Interest Rate Risk" section for additional information.