|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
competitive advantage in the engine markets we serve. The successful development and introduction of new and enhanced products in order to comply with new regulatory requirements are subject to other risks, such as delays in product development, cost over-runs and unanticipated technical and manufacturing difficulties.
In addition to these risks, the nature and timing of government implementation and enforcement of increasingly stringent emission standards in our worldwide markets are unpredictable and subject to change. Any delays in implementation or enforcement could result in a loss of our competitive advantage and could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our products are subject to recall for performance or safety-related issues.
Our products are subject to recall for performance or safety-related issues. Product recalls subject us to reputational risk, loss of current and future customers, reduced revenue and product recall costs. Product recall costs are incurred when we decide, either voluntarily or involuntarily, to recall a product through a formal campaign to solicit the return of specific products due to a known or suspected performance issue. Any significant product recalls could have material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. See Note 9, "PRODUCT WARRANTY LIABILITY" to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
We operate our business on a global basis and policy changes affecting international trade could adversely impact the demand for our products and our competitive position.
We manufacture, sell and service products globally and rely upon a global supply chain to deliver the raw materials, components, systems and parts that we need to manufacture and service our products. Changes in government policies on foreign trade and investment can affect the demand for our products and services, cause non-U.S. nationals to shift preferences toward domestically manufactured or branded products and impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products in certain countries. Our business benefits from free trade agreements, such as the new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement and the U.S. trade relationship with China, and efforts to withdraw from, or substantially modify such agreements or arrangements, in addition to the implementation of more restrictive trade policies, such as more detailed inspections, higher tariffs (including, but not limited to, additional tariffs on the import of steel or aluminum) import or export licensing requirements, exchange controls or new barriers to entry, could adversely impact our production costs, customer demand and our relationships with customers and suppliers. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The United Kingdom’s decision to end its membership in the European Union could materially and adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom elected to withdraw from the European Union (EU) in a national referendum (BREXIT). Additionally, the results of the United Kingdom’s BREXIT has caused, and may continue to cause, volatility in global stock markets, currency exchange rate fluctuations and global economic uncertainty. Although it is unknown what the terms of the United Kingdom’s future relationship with the EU will be, it is possible that there will be higher tariffs or greater restrictions on imports and exports between the United Kingdom and the EU and increased regulatory complexities. The effects of BREXIT will depend on any agreements the United Kingdom makes to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or on a permanent basis. These measures could potentially disrupt our supply chain, access to human capital and some of our target markets and jurisdictions in which we operate, and adversely change tax benefits or liabilities in these or other jurisdictions. In addition, BREXIT could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations, including with respect to emissions and similar certifications granted to us by the EU, as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. Any of these effects of BREXIT, among others, could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Lower-than-anticipated market acceptance of our new or existing products or services, including reductions in demand for diesel engines, could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Although we conduct market research before launching new or refreshed engines and introducing new services, many factors both within and outside our control affect the success of new or existing products and services in the marketplace. Offering engines and services that customers desire and value can mitigate the risks of increasing price competition and declining demand, but products and services that are perceived to be less than desirable (whether in terms of price, quality, overall value, fuel efficiency or other attributes) can exacerbate these risks. With increased consumer interconnectedness through the internet, social media and other media, mere allegations relating to poor quality, safety, fuel efficiency, corporate responsibility or other key attributes can negatively impact our reputation or market acceptance of our products or services, including with respect to the demand for diesel engines, even if such allegations prove to be inaccurate or unfounded.