|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
We continue to articulate our positions on key public policy issues and on a wide range of environmental issues. We are actively engaged with regulatory, industry and other stakeholder groups around the world as GHG and fuel efficiency standards become more prevalent globally. We were named in the Top 25 in Newsweek's 2018 Green Ranking of U.S. companies, as well as named to the Dow Jones North American Sustainability Index for the thirteenth consecutive year in 2018 and given the highest scores possible in the 2018 inaugural ESG rating from Institutional Investor Services.
Product Certification and Compliance
We strive to have robust certification and compliance processes, adhering to all emissions regulations worldwide, including prohibiting the use of defeat devices in all of our products. We are transparent with all governing bodies in these processes, from disclosure of the design and operation of the emission control system, to test processes and results, and later to any necessary reporting and corrective action processes if required.
We work collaboratively and proactively with emission regulators globally to ensure emission standards are clear, appropriately stringent and enforceable, in an effort to ensure our products deliver on our commitments to our customers and the environment in real world use every day.
Our engines are subject to extensive statutory and regulatory requirements that directly or indirectly impose standards governing emission and noise. Over the past several years we have substantially increased our global environmental compliance presence and expertise to understand and meet emerging product environmental regulations around the world. Our ability to comply with these and future emission standards is an essential element in maintaining our leadership position in regulated markets. We have made, and will continue to make, significant capital and research expenditures to comply with these standards. Our failure to comply with these standards could result in adverse effects on our future financial results.
EU and EPA Engine Certifications
The current on-highway NOx and PM emission standards came into effect in the European Union (EU) on January 1, 2013, (Euro VI) and on January 1, 2010, for the EPA. To meet the more stringent heavy-duty on-highway emission standards, we used an evolution of our proven selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology solutions and refined them for the EU and EPA certified engines to maintain power and torque with substantial fuel economy improvement and maintenance intervals comparable with our previous compliant engines. We offer a complete lineup of on-highway engines to meet the near-zero emission standards. Mid-range and heavy-duty engines for EU and EPA require NOx aftertreatment. NOx reduction is achieved by an integrated technology solution comprised of the XPI High Pressure Common Rail fuel system, SCR technology, next-generation cooled EGR, advanced electronic controls, proven air handling and the Cummins Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The EU, EPA and California Air Resources Board (CARB) have certified that our engines meet the current emission requirements. Emission standards in international markets, including Japan, Mexico, Australia, Brazil, Russia, India and China are becoming more stringent. We believe that our experience in meeting the EU and EPA emission standards leaves us well positioned to take advantage of opportunities in these markets as the need for emission control capability grows.
In 2013, we certified to EPA's first ever GHG regulations for on-highway medium- and heavy-duty engines. Additionally, the EPA 2013 regulations added the requirement of on-board diagnostics, which were introduced on the ISX 15 in 2010, across the full on-highway product line while maintaining the same near-zero emission levels of NOx and particulate matter required in 2010. On-board diagnostics provide enhanced service capability with standardized diagnostic trouble codes, service tool interface, in-cab warning lamp and service information availability. The new GHG and fuel-efficiency regulations were required for all heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines beginning in January 2014. Our GHG certification was the first engine certificate issued by the EPA and uses the same proven base engine with the XPI fuel system, variable geometry turbocharger (VGTTM) and Cummins aftertreatment system with DPF and SCR technology. Application of these engines and aftertreatment technologies continues in our products that comply with the 2017 GHG regulations.
The current EPA Tier 4 off-highway emission standards came into effect between the 2013 - 2015 time frame for all power categories. The current EU Stage V off-highway emission standards will come into effect between the 2019 - 2020 time frame for all power categories. Engines designed for Tier 4 / Stage V standards were based on our extensive on-highway experience developing SCR, high pressure fuel systems, DPF and VGTTM. Our products offer low fuel consumption, high torque rise and power output, extended maintenance intervals, reliable and durable operation and a long life to overhaul period, all while