|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
sales in 2018, less than 7 percent in 2017 and less than 7 percent in 2016. These agreements contain standard purchase and sale agreement terms covering engine and engine parts pricing, quality and delivery commitments, as well as engineering product support obligations. The basic nature of our agreements with OEM customers is that they are long-term price and operations agreements that help assure the availability of our products to each customer through the duration of the respective agreements. Agreements with most OEMs contain bilateral termination provisions giving either party the right to terminate in the event of a material breach, change of control or insolvency or bankruptcy of the other party.
We have supply agreements with some truck and off-highway equipment OEMs, however most of our business is transacted through open purchase orders. These open orders are historically subject to month-to-month releases and are subject to cancellation on reasonable notice without cancellation charges and therefore are not considered firm. At December 31, 2018, we did not have any significant backlogs.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
In 2018, we continued to invest in future critical technologies and products. We will continue to make investments to improve our current technologies, meet future emission requirements around the world and improve fuel economy.
Our research and development program is focused on product improvements, product extensions, innovations and cost reductions for our customers. Research and development expenditures include salaries, contractor fees, building costs, utilities, testing, technical IT, administrative expenses and allocation of corporate costs and are expensed, net of contract reimbursements, when incurred. From time to time, we enter into agreements with customers and government agencies to fund a portion of the research and development costs of a particular project. We generally account for these reimbursements as an offset to the related research and development expenditure. Research and development expenses, net of contract reimbursements, were $894 million in 2018, $734 million in 2017 and $616 million in 2016. Contract reimbursements were$120 million, $137 million and $131 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
We adopted our comprehensive environmental sustainability plan in 2014 after examining our entire environmental footprint, focusing on the key areas of water, waste, energy and greenhouse gases (GHG). As the concept and scope of environmental sustainability has matured and broadened, leaders have moved from initially working on environmental impacts within our direct control in our operations to an expanded view of fuel and raw materials that reaches across the entire product life-cycle from design to manufacture to end of life. Our environmental sustainability plan is the way we carry out our priorities, goals and initiatives in our action areas, including reducing our carbon footprint, using fewer natural resources and partnering to solve complex problems.
The highest level of accountability for Cummins’ climate-related risks and opportunities is with the Safety, Environment and Technology (SET) committee of the Board of Directors. The Action Committee for Environmental Sustainability meets monthly and reports to the Chairman and to the SET committee at least annually.
Our Sustainability Progress Report for 2017/2018 includes goal progress and other key environmental and climate metrics and targets. This and prior reports as well as a Data Book of more detailed environmental data in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative's Standard core compliance designation are available on our website at www.cummins.com. Our annual submission to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) is also available on the website. This submission provides information on our scenario planning exercise for climate and other risks as requested by CDP. These reports and data book are not incorporated into this Form 10-K by reference. We currently have the following environmental sustainability goals and commitments: