|CUMMINS INC filed this Form 10-K on 02/11/2019|
The performance of the end-to-end supply chain, extending through to our suppliers, is foundational to our ability to meet customers' expectations and support long-term growth. We are committed to having a robust strategy for how we select and manage our suppliers to enable a market focused supply chain. This requires us to continuously evaluate and upgrade our supply base, as necessary, to ensure we are meeting the needs of our customers.
We use a category strategy process (a process designed to create the most value for the company) that reviews our long-term needs and guides decisions on what we make internally and what we purchase externally. For the items we decide to purchase externally, the strategies also identify the suppliers we should partner with long-term to provide the best technology, the lowest total cost and highest supply chain performance. We design and/or manufacture our strategic components used in or with our engines and power generation units, including cylinder blocks and heads, turbochargers, connecting rods, camshafts, crankshafts, filters, alternators, electronic and emissions controls, automated transmissions and fuel systems. We source externally purchased material and manufactured components from leading global suppliers. Many key suppliers are managed through long-term supply agreements that assure capacity, delivery, quality and cost requirements are met over an extended period. Approximately 20 percent of the direct material in our product designs are single sourced to external suppliers. We have an established sourcing strategy and supplier management process to evaluate and mitigate risk. These processes are leading us to determine our need for dual sourcing and increase our use of dual and parallel sources to minimize risk and increase supply chain responsiveness. Our current target for dual and parallel sourcing is approximately 90 percent of our direct material spend. As of December 31, 2018, our analysis indicates that we have approximately 80 percent of direct material spend with dual or parallel sources.
Other important elements of our sourcing strategy include:
PATENTS AND TRADEMARKS
We own or control a significant number of patents and trademarks relating to the products we manufacture. These patents and trademarks were granted and registered over a period of years. Although these patents and trademarks are generally considered beneficial to our operations, we do not believe any patent, group of patents or trademark (other than our leading brand house trademarks) is significant to our business.
While individual product lines may experience modest seasonal variation in production, there is no material effect on the demand for the majority of our products on a quarterly basis with the exceptions that our Power Systems segment normally experiences seasonal declines in the first quarter due to general declines in construction spending during this period and our Distribution segment normally experiences seasonal declines in its first quarter business activity due to holiday periods in Asia and Australia.
We have thousands of customers around the world and have developed long-standing business relationships with many of them. PACCAR is our largest customer, accounting for 15 percent of our consolidated net sales in 2018, 14 percent in 2017 and 13 percent in 2016. We have long-term supply agreements with PACCAR for our heavy-duty and mid-range engines. While a significant number of our sales to PACCAR are under long-term supply agreements, these agreements provide for particular engine requirements for specific vehicle models and not a specific volume of engines. PACCAR is our only customer accounting for more than 10 percent of our net sales in 2018. The loss of this customer or a significant decline in the production level of PACCAR vehicles that use our engines would have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We have been an engine supplier to PACCAR for 74 years. A summary of principal customers for each operating segment is included in our segment discussion.
In addition to our agreement with PACCAR, we have long-term heavy-duty and medium-duty engine supply agreements with Navistar and Daimler. We also have an agreement with Fiat Chrysler to supply engines for its Ram trucks. Collectively, our net sales to these four customers, including PACCAR, were 35 percent of our consolidated net sales in 2018, 33 percent in 2017 and 33 percent in 2016. Excluding PACCAR, net sales to any single customer were less than 9 percent of our consolidated net