|UNION CARBIDE CORP /NEW/ filed this Form 10-K on 02/15/2018|
Polyethylene - includes FLEXOMER™ Polyethylene, very low-density polyethylene resins used as impact modifiers in other polymers and to produce flexible hose and tubing, frozen-food bags and stretch wrap; TUFLIN™ Linear Low Density and UNIVAL™ High Density Polyethylene resins used in high-volume applications such as housewares; milk, water, bleach and detergent bottles; grocery sacks; trash bags; packaging; and water and gas pipe.
Solvents and Intermediates - includes oxo aldehydes, acids and alcohols used as chemical intermediates and industrial solvents and in herbicides, plasticizers, paint dryers, jet-turbine lubricants, lube oil additives, and food and feed preservatives; and esters, which serve as solvents in industrial coatings and printing inks and in the manufacturing processes for pharmaceuticals and polymers.
Technology Licensing and Catalysts - includes catalysts for supply and licensing of the METEOR™ Process for EO/EG and the LP OXO process for oxo alcohols; and licensing of the METEOR™ Process for EO/EG and the LP OXO process for oxo alcohols through Dow Technology Investments LLC, a 50:50 joint venture with Dow Global Technologies LLC, a Dow subsidiary.
Vinyl Acetate Monomer - a building block for the manufacture of a variety of polymers used in water-based emulsion paints, adhesives, paper coatings, textiles, safety glass and acrylic fibers.
Water Soluble Polymers - polymers used to enhance the physical and sensory properties of end-use products in a wide range of applications including food, paints and coatings, pharmaceuticals, oil and gas, home and personal care, building and construction, and other specialty applications. Key product lines include POLYOX™ Water-Soluble Resins, and products for hair and skin manufactured by Amerchol Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary.
The chemical industry has been historically competitive and this competitive environment is expected to continue. Large, multinational chemical firms, as well as the chemical divisions of the major national and international oil companies, provide substantial competition both in the United States and abroad.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
The Corporation is engaged in a continuous program of basic and applied research to develop new products and processes, to improve and refine existing products and processes, and to develop new applications for existing products. Research and development expenses were $19 million in 2017, $18 million in 2016 and $20 million in 2015.
PATENTS, LICENSES AND TRADEMARKS
The Corporation continually applies for and obtains U.S. and foreign patents that relate to a wide variety of products and processes, has a substantial number of pending patent applications throughout the world, and is licensed under a number of patents. At December 31, 2017, the Corporation owned 121 active U.S. patents and 597 active foreign patents related to a wide variety of products and processes. These patents expire as follows:
The Corporation also has a large number of trademarks. Although the Corporation considers that its patents, licenses and trademarks in the aggregate constitute a valuable asset, it does not regard its business as being materially dependent on any single or group of related patents, licenses or trademarks.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION ABOUT FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC OPERATIONS AND EXPORT SALES
In 2017, the Corporation derived 23 percent of its trade sales to external customers outside the United States and had 3 percent of its property investment located outside the United States. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information on sales to external customers and long-lived assets by geographic region.
PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Matters pertaining to the environment are discussed in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Notes 1 and 14 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.