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(3) Recorded investment in loans as of the end of each period that are 90 days or more past due and continuing to accrue interest. The majority of this amount consists of loans insured or guaranteed by the U.S. government and loans where we have recourse against the seller in the event of a default.
(4) Represents the amount of interest income that would have been recorded during the period for on-balance sheet nonperforming loans as of the end of each period had the loans performed according to their original contractual terms.
(5) Represents interest income recognized during the period for on-balance sheet loans classified as nonperforming as of the end of each period. Includes primarily amounts accrued while loan was performing and cash payments received on nonaccrual loans.
Foreclosed Property Expense (Income)
Foreclosed property expense and income are displayed in Table 14. The shift from foreclosed property expense in the second quarter of 2010 to foreclosed property income in the second quarter of 2011, and the decline in foreclosed property expense in the first half of 2011 compared with the first half of 2010, was primarily due to an increase in estimated amounts due to or received by us for outstanding repurchase requests. These amounts were recognized in our provision for credit losses and foreclosed property expense and income. The foreclosed property expense in the 2010 periods reflected the recognition of cash fees of $211 million in the second quarter of 2010 and $773 million in the first half of 2010 from the cancellation and restructuring of some of our mortgage insurance coverage; there were no such fees recognized in the second quarter and first half of 2011. These fees represented an acceleration of, and discount on, claims to be paid pursuant to the coverage in order to reduce our future exposure to our mortgage insurers.
Credit Loss Performance Metrics
Our credit-related expenses should be considered in conjunction with our credit loss performance. Our credit loss performance metrics, however, are not defined terms within GAAP and may not be calculated in the same manner as similarly titled measures reported by other companies. Because management does not view changes in the fair value of our mortgage loans as credit losses, we adjust our credit loss performance metrics for the impact associated with the acquisition of credit-impaired loans. We also exclude interest forgone on nonperforming loans in our mortgage portfolio, other-than-temporary impairment losses resulting from deterioration in the credit quality of our mortgage-related securities and accretion of interest income on acquired credit-impaired loans from credit losses.
Historically, management viewed our credit loss performance metrics, which include our historical credit losses and our credit loss ratio, as indicators of the effectiveness of our credit risk management strategies. As our credit losses are now at such high levels, management has shifted focus to our loss mitigation strategies and the reduction of our total credit losses and away from the credit loss ratio to measure performance. However, we believe that credit loss performance metrics may be useful to investors as the losses are presented as a percentage of our book of business and have historically been used by analysts, investors and other companies within the financial services industry. They also provide a consistent treatment of credit losses for on- and off-balance sheet loans. Moreover, by presenting credit losses with and without the effect of fair value losses associated with the acquisition of credit-impaired loans, investors are able to evaluate our credit performance on a more consistent basis among periods. Table 14 details the components of our credit loss performance metrics as well as our average single-family and multifamily default rate and initial charge-off severity rate.