|FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION FANNIE MAE filed this Form 10-Q on 08/05/2011|
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS(Continued)
Cash Equivalents, Trading Securities and Available-for-Sale SecuritiesThese securities are recorded in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value on a recurring basis. Fair value is measured using quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets, when available. Securities, such as U.S. Treasuries, whose value is based on quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets are classified as Level 1. If quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets are not available, we use prices provided by up to four third-party pricing services that are calibrated to the quoted market prices in active markets for similar securities, and assets valued in this manner are classified as Level 2. In the absence of prices provided by third-party pricing services supported by observable market data, fair values are estimated using quoted prices of securities with similar characteristics or discounted cash flow models that use inputs such as spread, prepayment speed, yield, and loss severity based on market assumptions where available. Such instruments are generally classified as Level 2. Where there is limited activity or less transparency around inputs to the valuation, securities are classified as Level 3.
Mortgage Loans Held for InvestmentThe majority of HFI performing loans and nonperforming loans that are not individually impaired are reported in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at the principal amount outstanding, net of cost basis adjustments and an allowance for loan losses. We elected the fair value option for certain loans containing embedded derivatives that would otherwise require bifurcation and consolidated loans of senior-subordinate trust structures, which are recorded in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value on a recurring basis.
Fair value of performing loans represents an estimate of the prices we would receive if we were to securitize those loans and is determined based on comparisons to Fannie Mae MBS with similar characteristics, either on a pool or loan level. We use the observable market values of our Fannie Mae MBS determined from third-party pricing services and other observable market data as a base value, from which we add or subtract the fair value of the associated guaranty asset, guaranty obligation and master servicing arrangement. We classify these valuations primarily within Level 2 of the valuation hierarchy given that the market values of our Fannie Mae MBS are calibrated to the quoted market prices in active markets for similar securities. To the extent that significant inputs are not observable or determined by extrapolation of observable points, the loans are classified within Level 3. Certain loans that do not qualify for Fannie Mae MBS securitization are valued using market-based data including, for example, credit spreads, severities and prepayment speeds for similar loans, through third-party pricing services or through a model approach incorporating both interest rate and credit risk simulating a loan sale via a synthetic structure.
Fair value of single-family nonperforming loans represents an estimate of the prices we would receive if we were to sell these loans in the nonperforming whole-loan market. We calculate the fair value of nonperforming loans based on assumptions about key factors, including loan performance, collateral value, foreclosure related expenses, disposition timeline, and mortgage insurance repayment. Using these assumptions, along with indicative bids for a representative sample of nonperforming loans, we compute a market calibrated fair value. The bids on sample loans are obtained from multiple active market participants. Fair value for loans that are four or more months delinquent, in an open modification period, or in a closed modification and that have performed for nine or fewer months, is estimated directly from a model calibrated to these indicative bids. Fair value for loans that are one to three months delinquent is estimated by an interpolation method using three inputs: (1) the fair value estimate as a performing loan; (2) the fair value estimate as a nonperforming loan; and (3) the delinquency transition rate corresponding to the loans current delinquency status.
Fair value of a portion of our single-family nonperforming loans is measured using the value of the underlying collateral. These valuations leverage our proprietary distressed home price model. The model assigns a value using comparable transaction data. In determining what comparables to use in the calculations, the model measures three key characteristics relative to the target property: (1) distance from target property, (2) time of