|FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION FANNIE MAE filed this Form 10-Q on 05/06/2011|
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS(Continued)
Fair value of performing loans represents an estimate of the prices we would receive if we were to securitize those loans and is determined based on comparisons to Fannie Mae MBS with similar characteristics, either on a pool or loan level. We use the observable market values of our Fannie Mae MBS determined from third-party pricing services and other observable market data as a base value, from which we add or subtract the fair value of the associated guaranty asset, guaranty obligation and master servicing arrangement. We classify these valuations primarily within Level 2 of the valuation hierarchy given that the market values of our Fannie Mae MBS are calibrated to the quoted market prices in active markets for similar securities. To the extent that significant inputs are not observable or determined by extrapolation of observable points, the loans are classified within Level 3. Certain loans that do not qualify for Fannie Mae MBS securitization are valued using market-based data including, for example, credit spreads, severities and prepayment speeds for similar loans, through third-party pricing services or through a model approach incorporating both interest rate and credit risk simulating a loan sale via a synthetic structure.
Fair value of single-family nonperforming loans represents an estimate of the prices we would receive if we were to sell these loans in the nonperforming whole-loan market. We calculate the fair value of nonperforming loans based on assumptions about key factors, including loan performance, collateral value, foreclosure related expenses, disposition timeline, and mortgage insurance repayment. Using these assumptions, along with indicative bids for a representative sample of nonperforming loans, we compute a market calibrated fair value. The bids on sample loans are obtained from multiple active market participants. Fair value for loans that are four or more months delinquent, in an open modification period, or in a closed modification and that have performed for nine or fewer months, is estimated directly from a model calibrated to these indicative bids. Fair value for loans that are one to three months delinquent is estimated by an interpolation method using three inputs: (1) the fair value estimate as a performing loan; (2) the fair value estimate as a nonperforming loan; and (3) the delinquency transition rate corresponding to the loans current delinquency status.
Fair value of a portion of our single-family nonperforming loans is measured using the value of the underlying collateral. These valuations leverage our proprietary distressed home price model. The model assigns a value using comparable transaction data. In determining what comparables to use in the calculations, the model measures three key characteristics relative to the target property: (1) distance from target property, (2) time of the transaction and (3) comparability of the nondistressed value. A portion of the nonperforming loans that are impaired is measured at fair value in our condensed consolidated balance sheets on a nonrecurring basis. These loans are classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
Fair value of multifamily nonperforming loans is determined by external third-party valuations when available. If third-party valuations are unavailable, we determine the value of the collateral based on a derived property value estimation method using current net operating income of the property and capitalization rates.
Derivatives Assets and Liabilities (collectively derivatives)Derivatives are recorded in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value on a recurring basis. The valuation process for the majority of our risk management derivatives uses observable market data provided by third-party sources, resulting in Level 2 classification. Interest rate swaps are valued by referencing yield curves derived from observable interest rates and spreads to project and discount swap cash flows to present value. Option-based derivatives use a model that projects the probability of various levels of interest rates by referencing swaption and caplet volatilities provided by market makers/dealers. The projected cash flows of the underlying swaps of these option-based derivatives are discounted to present value using yield curves derived from observable interest rates and spreads. Exchange-traded futures are valued using market quoted prices, resulting in Level 1 classification. Certain highly complex structured derivatives use only a single external source of price information due to lack of transparency in the market and may be modeled using observable interest rates and volatility levels as