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Problem Loan Management
Our problem loan management strategies are primarily focused on reducing defaults to avoid losses that would otherwise occur and pursuing foreclosure alternatives to reduce the severity of the losses we incur. If a borrower does not make required payments, we work with the servicers of our loans to offer workout solutions to minimize the likelihood of foreclosure as well as the severity of loss. We refer to actions taken by servicers with borrowers to resolve existing or potential delinquent loan payments as “workouts.” Our loan workouts reflect our various types of home retention strategies and foreclosure alternatives.
Our home retention solutions are intended to help borrowers stay in their homes and include loan modifications, repayment plans and forbearances. Because we believe that reducing delays and implementing solutions that can be executed in a timely manner and early in the delinquency increases the likelihood that our problem loan management strategies will be successful in avoiding a default or minimizing severity, it is important for our servicers to work with borrowers to complete these solutions as early in their delinquency as feasible. If the servicer cannot provide a viable home retention solution for a problem loan, the servicer will seek to offer foreclosure alternatives, primarily preforeclosure sales and deeds-in-lieu of foreclosure. These alternatives reduce the severity of our loss resulting from a borrower’s default while permitting the borrower to avoid going through a foreclosure. However, the existence of a second lien may limit our ability to provide borrowers with loan workout options, including those that are part of our foreclosure prevention efforts. We occasionally execute third-party sales, where we sell the property to a third party immediately prior to entering the foreclosure process. When appropriate, we seek to move to foreclosure expeditiously.
Our mortgage servicers are the primary point of contact for borrowers and perform a vital role in our efforts to reduce defaults and pursue foreclosure alternatives. We seek to improve the servicing of our delinquent loans through a variety of means, including improving our communications with and training of our servicers, increasing the number of our personnel who manage our servicers, directing servicers to contact borrowers at an earlier stage of delinquency and improve their telephone communications with borrowers, and holding our servicers accountable for following our requirements. We continue to work with some of our servicers to test and implement “high-touch” servicing protocols designed for managing higher-risk loans, which include lower ratios of loans per servicer employee, beginning borrower outreach strategies earlier in the delinquency cycle and establishing a single point of resolution for distressed borrowers.
In the following section, we present statistics on our problem loans, describe specific efforts undertaken to manage these loans and prevent foreclosures and provide metrics regarding the performance of our loan workout activities. We generally define single-family problem loans as loans that have been identified as being at imminent risk of payment default; early stage delinquent loans that are either 30 days or 60 days past due; and seriously delinquent loans, which are loans that are three or more monthly payments past due or in the foreclosure process. Unless otherwise noted, single-family delinquency data is calculated based on number of loans. We include single-family conventional loans that we own and that back Fannie Mae MBS in the calculation of the single-family delinquency rate. Percentage of book outstanding calculations are based on the unpaid principal balance of loans for each category divided by the unpaid principal balance of our total single-family guaranty book of business for which we have detailed loan-level information.