|FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION FANNIE MAE filed this Form 10-Q on 05/07/2015|
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - (Continued)
Consensus: The fair value of single-family nonperforming loans represents an estimate of the prices we would receive if we were to sell these loans in the whole-loan market. These nonperforming loans are either two or more months delinquent, in an open modification period, or in a closed modification state (both performing and nonperforming in accordance with the loan’s modified terms). We calculate the fair value of nonperforming loans based on certain key factors, including collateral value, cash flow characteristics and mortgage insurance repayment. Collateral value is derived from the current estimated mark-to-market LTV ratio of the individual loan and, where appropriate, a state-level distressed property sales discount. Cash flow characteristics include attributes such as the weighted average coupon rate and loan payment history. The fair value of mortgage insurance is estimated by taking the loan level coverage and adjusting it by the expected claims paying ability of the associated mortgage insurer. The expected claims paying abilities used for estimating the fair value of mortgage insurance are consistent with our credit loss forecast. Fair value is estimated from the extrapolation of indicative sample bids obtained from multiple active market participants plus the estimated value of any applicable mortgage insurance. These loans are classified as Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
We estimate the fair value for a portion of our senior-subordinated trust structures using the average of two or more vendor prices at the security level as a proxy for estimating loan fair value. These loans are classified as Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
Discounted Cash Flow: We estimate the fair value of a portion of our senior-subordinated trust structures using discounted cash flow at the security level as a proxy for estimating loan fair value. This valuation technique uses unobservable inputs such as prepayment speeds, default rates, spreads, and loss severities to estimate the fair value of our securities. These inputs are weighted in a model that calculates the expected cash flow of the security which is used as the basis of fair value. These loans are classified as Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
Single Vendor: We estimate the fair value of a portion of our senior-subordinated trust structures using the single vendor valuation technique at the security level as a proxy for estimating loan fair value. We also estimate the fair value of our reverse mortgages using the single vendor valuation technique. These loans are classified as Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
Internal Model: For loans whose value it has been determined should be based on collateral value, we use an internal proprietary distressed home price model. The internal model used in this process takes one of two approaches when valuing the collateral.
The first approach relies on comparable foreclosed property sales to estimate the value of the target collateral. The comparable foreclosed property sales approach uses various factors such as geographic distance, transaction time and the value difference. The second approach referred to as the median Metropolitan Statistical Area (“MSA”) is based on the median of all the foreclosure sales of REOs in a specific MSA. Using this sales price, MSA level discount is computed and applied to the estimated non distressed value to derive an estimated fair value. If there are not enough REO sales in a specific MSA, a median state level foreclosure discount is used to estimate the fair value.
The majority of the internal model valuations come from the comparable sales approach. The determination of whether the internal model valuations in a particular geographic area should use the comparable sales approach or median MSA is based on historical accuracy. These loans are classified as Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy because significant inputs are unobservable.
Appraisals: For a portion of our multifamily loans, we use appraisals to estimate the fair value of the loan. There are three approaches used to estimate fair value of a specific property: (1) cost, (2) income capitalization and (3) sales comparison. The cost approach uses the insurable value as a basis. The unobservable inputs used in this model include the estimated cost to construct or replace multifamily properties in the closest localities available. The income capitalization approach estimates the fair value using the present value of the future cash flow expectations by applying an appropriate overall capitalization rate to the forecasted net operating income. The significant unobservable inputs used in this calculation include rental income, fees associated with rental income, expenses associated with the property including taxes, payroll, insurance and other items, and capitalization rates, which are determined through market extraction and the debt service coverage ratio. The sales comparison approach compares the prices paid for similar properties, the prices asked by owners and offers made. The unobservable inputs to this methodology include ratios of sales prices to annual gross income, price paid per unit and